Slavery and Political Division The Whig Party – split into 2 factions; Southerners supported Kansas- Nebraska Act; Northerners opposed it. Northern Whigs formed Republican Party. Southerners joined the Democratic Party.
The Republican Party Forms Republicans – anti-slavery; sectional party. Moral arguments against slavery and condescending to agriculture and slavery. “Bleeding Kansas” turning point and Republicans blamed the Democrats for the violence. John C. Fremont nominated for president.
Election of 1856 Democrats nominated James Buchanan. Said his goal was to maintain the union; said little about slavery. Know-Nothing Party nominated Millard Fillmore; divided over slavery and little power. Buchanan won the election, but Republicans proved to be a major source in the North.
The Breaking Point Dred Scott – slave in MO, but had been free previously; when his owner died he claimed to be free; Dred Scott v.Sandford. The Supreme Court ruled against Scott. Chief Justice, Roger B. Taney, ruled that Scott was not a citizen and could not sue.
The Lincoln-Douglas Debate Abraham Lincoln ran against Stephen Douglas in the for the IL U.S. Senate seat. Republicans feared that the Democrats wanted to legalize slavery nationwide. “A house divided against itself cannot stand.” Lincoln and Douglas held debates across IL. Lincoln argued slavery should not be expanded; Douglas argued for popular sovereignty.
Lincoln-Douglas Debates Popular sovereignty was made unconstitutional by the Supreme Court’s Dred Scott Decision. People could not vote to ban slavery because it took away slaveholders property rights. Douglas won reelection. Lincoln received much notoriety in the country and strengthened his position in the Republican Party.
John Brown’s Raid John Brown planned to capture weapons arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, VA. 18 followers – 13 whites and 5 blacks. Captured Harpers Ferry. Could rally local slaves to help. U.S. Marines sent in and Brown captured. Brown convicted of murder and treason(betrayal of country)