Simple Sentences (Independent Clauses) Simple Sentence: a sentence with only one complete thought. It may have more than one subject and more than one verb. Example: Bill danced in the club.
Compound Subject Two or more subjects that act on the SAME verb. Example: Bill and Mary danced in the club. –This is a simple sentence with two subjects that act on the same verb.
Compound Verb Two or more verbs that share the same subject. Example: Bill ran and jumped during the game.
Both compound subject and verb Some simple sentences can have a compound subject and compound verb. Example: Bill and Mary walked to the store and bought potato chips.
Compound Sentences (Two Independent Clauses) A compound sentence is a sentence that consists of two simple sentences. Example: Bill won the race, and he received a gold medal.
Coordinating Conjunctions Coordinating conjunctions are words that are used to connect other words and groups of words. In compound sentences, coordinating conjunctions, along with a comma, connect the two simple sentences.
Rule #1 Compound sentences connected with a coordinating conjunction MUST HAVE at least one subject and at least one verb on BOTH sides of the comma and conjunction.
Semicolon Use a semicolon in compound sentences to separate the two simple sentences. The semicolon REPLACES the comma and the coordinating conjunction. Example: Bill won the race; he received a gold medal.
Rule #2 Compound sentences separated by a semicolon MUST HAVE at least one subject and at least one verb on BOTH sides of the semicolon.
Complex Sentences (An independent clause and a dependent clause) A sentence that combines a simple sentence and a subordinate clause. A subordinate clause is a group of words that CANNOT STAND ALONE as a simple sentence. They need to be connected to a simple sentence.
Rule #3 Subordinate clauses that begin with subordinating conjunctions are known as adverb clauses. Many complex sentences include adverb clauses.
Rule #4 When the clause with the subordinating conjunction BEGINS the sentence, you need to separate the simple sentence from the clause with a comma. –Example: After Bill won the race, he received a medal. You do not need a comma when the subordinating conjunction appears in the MIDDLE of the sentence. –Example: Bill received a medal after he won the race.
Subordinating Conjunctions AfterWhileAs long as BecauseAsSince ThoughIfWhen WhereasUnlessAs though AlthoughAs ifSo that BeforeIn order that TillUntilWhere HINT: You should memorize this list of subordinating conjunctions because their appearance in a sentence is a big clue that the sentence is complex.