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The Mongols Chapter 12 Sections 2 and 3.

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Presentation on theme: "The Mongols Chapter 12 Sections 2 and 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Mongols Chapter 12 Sections 2 and 3

2 Mongol Conquests Geography of the Steppe Nomadic Life
Temperatures range from - 57 F in the winter to 96F in the summer Windy, with very little rain Very poor farmland encouraged Nomadic Life Nomadic Life Did not wander; followed seasonal patterns and returned to areas to feed animals Used horses and were skilled on them Traveled in clans; multiple clans joined together when larger force was needed

3 Review/Preview Why were the people of the Steppe nomadic? How might the nomadic people interact with settled societies? Dry, windswept land was poor for farming Often groups engaged in peaceful trade, however sometimes nomadic clans would raid villages or if empire was weak over run entire empire

4 Genghis Khan Around 1200 Temujun began uniting the Mongol clans by defeating rivals 1206 assumes the name Genghis Khan, which means “universal ruler” Sought to conquer Asia

5 How Genghis won Organization 10,000 man armies; 1,000 man brigades; 100 man companies; 10 man squads Strategy Used various techniques to confuse enemies Cruelty Used cruelty and fear to get many to surrender without a fight

6 The Mongol Empire Even after Genghis died, conquering continued till Mongols had largest Empire ever; From China to Poland Division 4 regions or khanates Khanate of the Great Khan (Mongolia and China) Khanate of Chagatai (Central Asia) Khanate of Ilkhanate (Persia) Khanate of the Golden Horde (Russia)

7 Rulers Many areas never recovered because the Mongols destroyed so much land or the population decreased greatly Tolerant in Peace Did not impose beliefs on people; some Mongol leaders even converted to culture of people they ruled

8 Pax Mongolia Mid 1200’s –Mid 1300’s Trade Caravans, travelers and missionaries could travel safely from one empire to another Ideas and inventions spread rapidly during this time (Gunpowder reached Europe) Some believe the bubonic plague also reached Europe from Asia by Mongol troops during this time

9 Review Questions Why were the peoples of the Steppe nomadic? How might a clan system be suitable for a nomadic society? What factors would someone trying to unify clans need to consider? What are advantages and disadvantages to using cruelty as a weapon? Why would the Mongols concern themselves with the safe passage of traders?

10 Kublai Khan Grandson of Genghis Khan; assumed title Great Khan in 1260 Sought to control all of China 1279 first foreigner to rule all of China Started the Yuan Dynasty

11 Why is Kublai Khan important?
United all of China for first time in more than 300 years For this he is considered a great emperor Because the Mongols controlled such a large area China is opened to greater Foreign contacts and trade Tolerated Chinese Culture and made few changes to the system of Government

12 Emperor Kublai Khan Unlike other Mongol Leaders Kublai leaves Mongolia and the nomadic lifestyle Moves to Beijing and enjoys luxuries Attempts to invade Japan in 1274 and 1281 Were defeated both times

13 Government under Kublai
Mongols and Chinese live apart and obeyed different laws High Government positions went to Mongols or Foreigners Foreigners were trusted more than Chinese because they did not have local ties Local positions were left to the Chinese

14 Foreign Trade Increased Under Kublai Khan
Largely due to Pax Mongolia Chinese Silks and Porcelain were shipped to Western Europe and Western Asia Printing, gunpowder, compass, paper currency and playing cards also brought to Europe Marco Polo Son of a trader that traveled the Silk Roads Worked in Kublai’s Court for 17 Told stories of China in Europe Said China was the greatest civilization in the world

15 End of Mongol Rule Over spending and failed conquests hurt Kublai Khan When he dies family fights over who will follow Chinese do not like Mongol rule Started rebellions Famine, Flood, disease, economic problems and government corruption also occurred

16 End of Mongol Rule 1368 Mongols overthrown in China Leads to Ming dynasty Other Khanates ended in 1300 and 1400’s

17 Review Why didn’t the Mongols try to adapt Chinese culture? Proud of their own culture, Chinese did not accept them What factors led to the Yuan Dynasty’s downfall? Overexpansion, military defeats, heavy Taxation, resentment from Chinese, fighting within the family, natural disasters, corruption

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