Presentation on theme: "Week 13 World History. Day 1 How did early Muslims treat people with different religious beliefs? What were the main reasons for the split between Sunni."— Presentation transcript:
Week 13 World History
Day 1 How did early Muslims treat people with different religious beliefs? What were the main reasons for the split between Sunni and Shia? Who was Muhammad?
Decline of the Abbasids Powerful Abbasid Empire faces many attacks during 700s and 800s Persians conquer Abbasid capital, Baghdad, in 945 The Conquering Seljuks Turks are a nomadic group living along western border of China led by Turkish family—the Seljuks seizes Baghdad in 1055 In 1071 Seljuk sultans crush Byzantine Empire at Battle of Manzikert Seljuks take most of Anatolia; bring Turks close to Constantinople
The Turks Secure Persian Support Turks seek support of Persians and embrace Persian culture Give Persians key posts, including that of vizier, or prime minister Adopt Persian language and religion—Islam Malik Shah was one of the most famous Seljuk rulers, or shahs He and other shahs support Persian artists; build mosques
Malik Shah Dies 1092 Malik Shah dies; no capable shah replaces him Seljuk Empire turns into group of minor kingdoms The Seljuks and the Crusaders Crusades begin in 1095—Christians drive Turks out of Anatolia In 1099, Crusaders capture Jerusalem; massacre Muslims and Jews Fragment of Seljuk Empire fights back, Muslims recover Jerusalem Captain Saladin allows Western pilgrims access to Christian holy places
Seljuks Face the Mongols Mongol armies under leader Hulagu capture Baghdad in 1258 Hulagu, Genghis Kahn’s grandson, burns palace, kills Abbasid caliph Ends Turkish rule with much bloodshed
SituationOutcome 945 Persians move into Baghdad 10 th c. Turks migrate to Abbsaid empire Slejuks march on Byzantine Empire Seljuks name Isfahan as their capital Turks adopt Persian as language and Persian culture Malik Shah dies Seljuks fight back against Crusaders Further Crusades occur but each is weaker than the last one
Day 2 Why did the Seljuks need to seek religious guidance from the Persian peoples they had conquered? How did the death of Malik Shah affect the Seljuk Empire? Do you think it was wise for the Seljuks to place members of the conquered Persians in government positions? Why or why not?
Nomads of the Asian Steppe Steppe—dry grassland of Eurasia, main expanses Central Asia to eastern Europe, and Mongolia Steppe has little rain, dramatic seasonal temperature differences The Nomadic Way of Life Steppe nomads are pastoralists— Way of life teaches Asian nomads to be skilled horse riders who travel in clans Nomads and people living in settled communities often interact peacefully, as in trade Sometimes nomads raid towns and cities to seize wealth, goods
The Rise of the Mongols 1200, Genghis Khan unites Mongols In early 1200s, begins campaign of conquest By 1225, controls Central Asia Genghis the Conqueror dies in 1227 The Mongol Empire Successors continue conquests for 50 years Conquer territory from China to Poland In east, Mongols conquer northern China and invade Korea In west, Mongols take Kiev and threaten Vienna and Venice In 1250s, Mongols turn their attention to Persia By 1260, Mongol Empire split into khanates, four regions
The Mongols as Rulers Mongol rulers are tolerant of other peoples, cultures Some Mongols adopt local ways, leading to split among khanates The Mongol Peace Peaceful period from mid-1200s to mid-1300s called Pax Mongolica Much east-west trade, exchange of ideas during this period.
1 What was the primary cause of conflict between steepe nomads and sttled communities?
2 How was Genghis Khan able to unite the nomadic Mongols
3 What traits enabled Genghis Khan to conquer most of Asia?
4 Into what four khanates did the successors of Genghis Khan divide the Mongol Empire?
5 How did the Mogols rule?
6 How did cultural differences among thd khantes eventually affect the empire?
7 What was the Mongol peace?
8 How did the peace affect trade and cultural interaction?
Place your wager
9 Explain how the terms pastoralist and clan apply to the nomads of the Asian steppe?
Day 3 Who was Genghis Kahn? Why was terror so important to Genghis Kahn? What happened to the Mongol Empire in the years after Genghis Khan's death?
Kublai Khan, grandson of Genghis becomes emperor in 1260 Kublai conquers China by 1279 Establishes Yuan Dynasty (1279–1368), peace, prosperity adopts Chinese ways, capital at Beijing In 1274 and 1281, Kublai fails to conquer Japan Massive second invasion destroyed by typhoon Mongol Rule in China Mongols live apart from Chinese, separate laws keep top government posts, Chinese in local positions xtends Grand Canal to Beijing, builds highway Foreign Trade Trade increases, sending Chinese products to other lands and invites merchants from other lands to China
Marco Polo at the Mongol Court Venetian trader Marco Polo visits China in 1275 Polo returns to Venice in 1292; tells stories of what he saw in China - fabulous cities, fantastic wealth - burning “black stones” (coal) to heat Chinese homes 6 - Kublai Khan’s government and trade in Beijing These stories gathered into a book; most readers doubt its truth
The End of Mongol Rule Declining Power Failed expeditions to Southeast Asia show weakness of Yuan Dynasty High taxes cause resentment Yuan Dynasty Overthrown Kublai dies in 1294; successors are weak In 1300s, rebellions break out, leading to formation of Ming Dynasty Decline of the Mongol Empire Mongol rule collapses in Persia in 1330s; in Central Asia in 1370s By end of 1300s, only Mongol rule in Russia remains, the Golden Horde
Groups Who was Kublai Khan & Marco Polo? When did the Mongols gain control of all of China? When did Kublai Khan rule? Where did Kublai Khan build palaces? Move the capital of his empire? Why did Mongols give high gov't post to foreigners? Why were they unable to conquer Japan? Why is the Yuan Dynasty important in Chinese history? How did the Mongol rulers treat their Chinese subjects? How did they expand trade? What brought about the fall of the Yuan dynasty?