2Day 1How did early Muslims treat people with different religious beliefs?What were the main reasons for the split between Sunni and Shia?Who was Muhammad?
3Decline of the Abbasids • Powerful Abbasid Empire faces many attacks during 700s and 800s• Persians conquer Abbasid capital, Baghdad, in 945The Conquering Seljuks• Turks are a nomadic group living along western border of China led by Turkish family—the Seljuks seizes Baghdad in 1055• In 1071 Seljuk sultans crush Byzantine Empire at Battle of Manzikert• Seljuks take most of Anatolia; bring Turks close to Constantinople
5The Turks Secure Persian Support • Turks seek support of Persians and embrace Persian culture• Give Persians key posts, including that of vizier, or prime minister• Adopt Persian language and religion—Islam• Malik Shah was one of the most famous Seljuk rulers, or shahs• He and other shahs support Persian artists; build mosques
6Malik Shah Dies•1092 Malik Shah dies; no capable shah replaces him• Seljuk Empire turns into group of minor kingdomsThe Seljuks and the Crusaders• Crusades begin in 1095—Christians drive Turks out of Anatolia• In 1099, Crusaders capture Jerusalem; massacre Muslims and Jews• Fragment of Seljuk Empire fights back, Muslims recover Jerusalem• Captain Saladin allows Western pilgrims access to Christian holy places
8Seljuks Face the Mongols • Mongol armies under leader Hulagu capture Baghdad in 1258• Hulagu, Genghis Kahn’s grandson, burns palace, kills Abbasid caliph• Ends Turkish rule with much bloodshed
9SituationOutcome945 Persians move into Baghdad10th c. Turks migrate to Abbsaid empireSlejuks march on Byzantine EmpireSeljuks name Isfahan as their capitalTurks adopt Persian as language and Persian cultureMalik Shah diesSeljuks fight back against CrusadersFurther Crusades occur but each is weaker than the last one
11Day 2Why did the Seljuks need to seek religious guidance from the Persian peoples they had conquered?How did the death of Malik Shah affect the Seljuk Empire?Do you think it was wise for the Seljuks to place members of the conquered Persians in government positions? Why or why not?
12Nomads of the Asian Steppe • Steppe—dry grassland of Eurasia, main expanses Central Asia to eastern Europe, and Mongolia• Steppe has little rain, dramatic seasonal temperature differencesThe Nomadic Way of Life• Steppe nomads are pastoralists—• Way of life teaches Asian nomads to be skilled horse riders who travel in clans• Nomads and people living in settled communities often interact peacefully, as in trade Sometimes nomads raid towns and cities to seize wealth, goods
14The Rise of the Mongols• 1200, Genghis Khan unites Mongols• In early 1200s, begins campaign of conquest• By 1225, controls Central AsiaGenghis the Conqueror dies in 1227The Mongol Empire• Successors continue conquests for 50 years• Conquer territory from China to Poland• In east, Mongols conquer northern China and invade Korea• In west, Mongols take Kiev and threaten Vienna and Venice• In 1250s, Mongols turn their attention to Persia• By 1260, Mongol Empire split into khanates, four regions
16The Mongols as Rulers• Mongol rulers are tolerant of other peoples, cultures• Some Mongols adopt local ways, leading to split among khanatesThe Mongol Peace• Peaceful period from mid-1200s to mid-1300s called Pax Mongolica• Much east-west trade, exchange of ideas during this period.
29Why was terror so important to Genghis Kahn? Day 3Who was Genghis Kahn?Why was terror so important to Genghis Kahn?What happened to the Mongol Empire in the years after Genghis Khan's death?
30Kublai Khan, grandson of Genghis becomes emperor in 1260 • Kublai conquers China by 1279• Establishes Yuan Dynasty (1279–1368), peace, prosperity adopts Chinese ways, capital at Beijing• In 1274 and 1281, Kublai fails to conquer Japan• Massive second invasion destroyed by typhoonMongol Rule in China• Mongols live apart from Chinese, separate laws keep top government posts, Chinese in local positions• Extends Grand Canal to Beijing, builds highwayForeign Trade• Trade increases, sending Chinese products to other lands and invites merchants from other lands to China
32Marco Polo at the Mongol Court • Venetian trader Marco Polo visits China in 1275• Polo returns to Venice in 1292; tells stories of what he saw in China- fabulous cities, fantastic wealth- burning “black stones” (coal) to heat Chinese homes6- Kublai Khan’s government and trade in Beijing• These stories gathered into a book; most readers doubt its truth
34The End of Mongol RuleDeclining Power• Failed expeditions to Southeast Asia show weakness of Yuan Dynasty• High taxes cause resentmentYuan Dynasty Overthrown• Kublai dies in 1294; successors are weak• In 1300s, rebellions break out, leading to formation of Ming DynastyDecline of the Mongol Empire• Mongol rule collapses in Persia in 1330s; in Central Asia in 1370s• By end of 1300s, only Mongol rule in Russia remains, the Golden Horde
35Groups Who was Kublai Khan & Marco Polo? When did the Mongols gain control of all of China? When did Kublai Khan rule?Where did Kublai Khan build palaces? Move the capital of his empire?Why did Mongols give high gov't post to foreigners? Why were they unable to conquer Japan? Why is the Yuan Dynasty important in Chinese history?How did the Mongol rulers treat their Chinese subjects?How did they expand trade?What brought about the fall of the Yuan dynasty?