Presentation on theme: "Teaching & Education a beginner’s guide"— Presentation transcript:
1 Teaching & Education a beginner’s guide Dr. Ramesh MehayProgramme Director Bradford VTS
2 Today’s A&OsAimsTo introduce you to educational theory to help you in your teaching with registrars and medical studentsTo keep this pretty light hearted without you falling asleepObjectivesAt the end of today’s sessionYou’ll understand the four ACME steps to delivering effective teaching sessionsYou’ll be able to distinguish between an aim and an objectiveHopefully, some practice….
3 A.C.M.E.IMPORTANT SLIDE4 important aspects of any educational session:Aims & ObjectivesContentMethodologyEvaluationThe Acme Corporation is a fictional corporation that exists in the Looney Tunes universe. It made its first appearance in a Buddy cartoon (Buddy's Bug Hunt), and it also appeared in the Egghead cartoon Count Me Out in which Egghead purchases a "Learn How To Box" kit from Acme. The Acme Corporation was featured most prominently in the Road Runner/Wile E. Coyote cartoons.The name is ironic since the word acme actually means the best or pinnacle. Generally, the products from the fictional Acme Corporation are very generic and tend to fail.The company is never clearly defined, but appears to be a conglomerate which produces everything and anything imaginable (leading to the backronym "American Company Making Everything"), no matter how elaborate or extravagant. An example is the Acme Giant Rubber Band, subtitled "(For Tripping Road Runners)", which would appear to be produced specifically for Wile E. Coyote, who is perhaps one of Acme's best customers.
4 Aims & Objectives IHow can you do something or AIM for something if you don’t know what that AIM is?Analogy: buying a houseIgnoring A&Os everything goes wrong (unstructured, chaos)A&Os are foundation building blocks
5 Aims & Objectives IIAims & Objectives = purpose = what are you/we trying to do/achieve?Aims – a broad statement of intenteg at the end of this session, you’ll be more knowledgeable about educational theory bits that will help you in practiceObjective – a specific statement of intenteg at the end of this session, you’ll be able to define an aim and an objectiveSPEND TIME REALLY TEASING OUT THE AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
6 Aims & Objectives III Aims and Objectives usually fall into 3 domains knowledgeskills/competenciesattitudes
7 Content I Easy to figure out content if u have defined the A&Os Remember to deliver on the learner’s agenda which may be totally different than yoursSometimes, your agenda might be important too and thus negotiationPossible content: K.S.A.Deep Learning vs Superficial LearningHow to teach at several levels in one session eg “GPR who says I don’t know anything about blah blah blah”Consolidate heavy content stuff with handouts
8 Content II Linking knowledge to skills Miller’s pyramid DoesShows howKnows howKnows
9 Methodology I Perceptions What do you see? Ask the Audience - What do they see?Hands up….old lady, young lady, other, both.This goes to show that we all have different pre-concieved ideas and concepts. Some of you see an old lady, others a young one, others something else. If we carry different perceptions then surely we all learn differently. That means, one method of instruction of method of learning may not cater for us all.In addition, as we all have different preconcieved ideas about a certain topic, as a group, we can learn a lot from each other and appreciate the different points of view.
10 Methodology II There are a variety of ways of delivering something Some more effective than othersUse a mixture of ways even in one session (esp with groups of learners) learning stylesSkills can never be acquired simply through talking; practice is best, demonstration/role play alternativesAlways try to get participants involved – interactiveness; by being awake, they learnDon’t bombard with too much informationRemember, average attention span is 20 minutes breaks
11 Methodology III We remember: 10% of what we read 20% of what we hear 30% of what we see50% of what we see and hear80% of what we say90% of what we say and do (Rigg)Often we get comments and feedback in the HDR sessions that state “could have been done in half the time if we didn’t have to role play and if someone just told us”Yes, it could have been done in half the time. BUT the important thing is that you would have acquired sweet nothing or little….and more than likely, most of you would have fallen asleep. But by doing, by being interactive, by using many senses (‘multisensing’), we constantly reinforce our brains with new information…..to the extent it is acquired with greater effect and less effort.So don’t be afraid of games, role plays and other new methods of learning.Go out and play.
12 Methodology IV Putting it all together I hear and I forget I see and I rememberI do and I understandConfuscius c 450 BCThe questionairre gives data on people’s learning style preferences, which can be used in a variety of ways….for instance:1) learning using methods that compliment you preference style2) using methods to improve or boost weaker area’s3) Courses can be designed to appeal to different learning styles or to cater for a group of attendees with the same learning style preference4) Learning styles can be used to formulate team members so that the team on the whole has a range of skill mix….or to help tailor individual members to roles that compliment their learning styles
13 Methodology V Methods of Instruction the lecturethe modified lecturethe demonstrationregistrar practiceregistrar readinggroup discussionconferencesseminarsworkshops, clinicsthe fishbowlrole-playsimulationgamesvideos/filmsbrainstormingprogrammed instructionfield tripsquestion and answerGet audience to list on a flip chart, different methods of teaching.So you can see from the list above, there are a variety of teaching methods. Different people prefer different teaching methods….much of it governed by your learning preference.However, if we used several of these methods in one tutorial session, we might actually succeed in catering for most of the learning styles within the group.This is why, on the Bradford VTS, we use several methods in one session or sitting. A lot of you hate role play….but now can you see why we do it…there are others in the audience who love it. In fact, interactive learning is a very effective method!Didactic lectures are a method which research has shown to be an ineffective method of learning when used alone in isolation. That is why if we do give a lecture in a session, it lasts for only a short period. Didactic lectures are in fact a child way of learning…we had it at infant school, at junior school, at sixth form/further education and even in medical school….and that is why some of you love it…because you were comfortable with it and sometimes, stepping out into unfamiliar grounds, as in role play, can feel daunting. But, you are all adults and so a child’s method isn’t appropriate any more. You should not be spoon fed, but you must now feed yourselves.
14 Methodology VI Knowledge LecturesTutorialsBooksJournalsElectronic information sources
15 Methodology VII Skills ClinicalPracticalConsultationCommunicationProblem solvingResearch and audit (evaluating and doing)
16 How do we acquire skills and develop attitudes and values?
17 Methodology VIII Some learning tools (incl. for attitudes) problem case analysis - things you know you don’t knowrandom case analysis - issues you may not have identifiedcritical incident analysis - learning from mistakes and near missesPUNs (patient unmet needs)DENs (doctors educational needs)
18 Methodology IX Experiential learning (Kolb) Kolb (1984) describes an experiential learning cycle:concrete experienceobservations and reflectionformation of abstract concepts and generalizationstesting implications of concepts in new situations.So whilst learning from concrete experience forms part of the theory of experiential learning, a process reflection is also central.
19 Methodology X Reflective practitioner Schön (1983) developed the concept of the ‘Reflective Practitioner’.The professional practitioner reflects on their knowledge whilst engaging in activity.This enables them to adapt to the potentially unique context or problem with which they are faced.Coles (1994) concludes that:‘Professional education should provide people with the opportunity to reflect on their practice and to identify the theories embedded in their routine work.’
20 Methodology XI Constructivism (3 Cs) Three C’sConstruction- Knowledge builds on what is already known.Context is important when learning and also when applying learning in practiceCollaboration – knowledge is socially negotiated, i.e varies in different contexts / cultures, collaboration helps to explore different perspectives.
21 Evaluation I FEEDBACK gives you an EVALUATION of Information about performance or behaviour which leads to action to affirm or develop performance or behaviouri eto affirm what you do wellto help you develop in areas you do less well
22 Evaluation II Useful feedback is well timed (enough time, full attention, calm, prepared)involves mutual goodwillis balancedis specificis descriptivecan lead to change (if change required))
23 Evaluation III Receiving feedback may need to asklisten carefullyask for clarification, examples, alternativesgive it time to sink inthink about your relationship with giverdon’t let small criticisms devastatedon’t be defensive
24 And the last slide……. (yippy ) ClosureRemember ACMEWhat are you trying to do? Ask the learner… NegotiateThink about the content in light of the A&Os – be careful re: overloading with infoThink about your methodology – add dynamism, enthusiasm, interactivenessIf you have tried something before, try it; play with it; don’t be scaredGet the learners to help you be even better – evaluate!And the last slide……. (yippy )
25 Adult learning learning what’s important to you applicable in the real world (context)learner, not teacher, is responsiblelearning is self directedlearning is continuous, must adapt to new situationscompare to pedagogic (childhood) learning