Presentation on theme: "Teaching & Education a beginners guide Dr. Ramesh Mehay Programme Director Bradford VTS."— Presentation transcript:
Teaching & Education a beginners guide Dr. Ramesh Mehay Programme Director Bradford VTS
Todays A&Os Aims To introduce you to educational theory to help you in your teaching with registrars and medical students To keep this pretty light hearted without you falling asleep Objectives At the end of todays session Youll understand the four ACME steps to delivering effective teaching sessions Youll be able to distinguish between an aim and an objective Hopefully, some practice….
A.C.M.E. IMPORTANT SLIDE 4 important aspects of any educational session: Aims & Objectives Content Methodology Evaluation
Aims & Objectives I How can you do something or AIM for something if you dont know what that AIM is? Analogy: buying a house Ignoring A&Os everything goes wrong (unstructured, chaos) A&Os are foundation building blocks
Aims & Objectives II Aims & Objectives = purpose = what are you/we trying to do/achieve? Aims – a broad statement of intent eg at the end of this session, youll be more knowledgeable about educational theory bits that will help you in practice Objective – a specific statement of intent eg at the end of this session, youll be able to define an aim and an objective SPEND TIME REALLY TEASING OUT THE AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
Aims & Objectives III Aims and Objectives usually fall into 3 domains knowledge skills/competencies attitudes
Content I Easy to figure out content if u have defined the A&Os Remember to deliver on the learners agenda which may be totally different than yours Sometimes, your agenda might be important too and thus negotiation Possible content: K.S.A. Deep Learning vs Superficial Learning How to teach at several levels in one session eg GPR who says I dont know anything about blah blah blah Consolidate heavy content stuff with handouts
Content II Linking knowledge to skills Millers pyramid Does Shows how Knows how Knows
Methodology I Perceptions What do you see?
Methodology II There are a variety of ways of delivering something Some more effective than others Use a mixture of ways even in one session (esp with groups of learners) learning styles Skills can never be acquired simply through talking; practice is best, demonstration/role play alternatives Always try to get participants involved – interactiveness; by being awake, they learn Dont bombard with too much information Remember, average attention span is 20 minutes breaks
Methodology III We remember: 10% of what we read 20% of what we hear 30% of what we see 50% of what we see and hear 80% of what we say 90% of what we say and do (Rigg)
Methodology IV Putting it all together I hear and I forget I see and I remember I do and I understand Confuscius c 450 BC
Methodology V Methods of Instruction the lecture the modified lecture the demonstration registrar practice registrar reading group discussion conferences seminars workshops, clinics the fishbowl role-play simulation games videos/films brainstorming programmed instruction field trips question and answer
Methodology VI Knowledge Lectures Tutorials Books Journals Electronic information sources
Methodology VII Skills Clinical Practical Consultation Communication Problem solving Research and audit (evaluating and doing)
How do we acquire skills and develop attitudes and values?
Methodology VIII Some learning tools (incl. for attitudes) problem case analysis - things you know you dont know random case analysis - issues you may not have identified critical incident analysis - learning from mistakes and near misses PUNs (patient unmet needs) DENs (doctors educational needs)
Methodology IX Experiential learning (Kolb) Kolb (1984) describes an experiential learning cycle: concrete experience observations and reflection formation of abstract concepts and generalizations testing implications of concepts in new situations. So whilst learning from concrete experience forms part of the theory of experiential learning, a process reflection is also central.
Methodology X Reflective practitioner Schön (1983) developed the concept of the Reflective Practitioner. The professional practitioner reflects on their knowledge whilst engaging in activity. This enables them to adapt to the potentially unique context or problem with which they are faced. Coles (1994) concludes that: Professional education should provide people with the opportunity to reflect on their practice and to identify the theories embedded in their routine work.
Methodology XI Constructivism (3 Cs) Three Cs Construction- Knowledge builds on what is already known. Context is important when learning and also when applying learning in practice Collaboration – knowledge is socially negotiated, i.e varies in different contexts / cultures, collaboration helps to explore different perspectives.
Evaluation I FEEDBACK gives you an EVALUATION of Information about performance or behaviour which leads to action to affirm or develop performance or behaviour i e to affirm what you do well to help you develop in areas you do less well
Evaluation II Useful feedback is well timed (enough time, full attention, calm, prepared) involves mutual goodwill is balanced is specific is descriptive can lead to change (if change required))
Evaluation III Receiving feedback may need to ask listen carefully ask for clarification, examples, alternatives give it time to sink in think about your relationship with giver dont let small criticisms devastate dont be defensive
Closure Remember ACME What are you trying to do? Ask the learner… Negotiate Think about the content in light of the A&Os – be careful re: overloading with info Think about your methodology – add dynamism, enthusiasm, interactiveness If you have tried something before, try it; play with it; dont be scared Get the learners to help you be even better – evaluate! And the last slide……. (yippy )
Adult learning learning whats important to you applicable in the real world (context) learner, not teacher, is responsible learning is self directed learning is continuous, must adapt to new situations compare to pedagogic (childhood) learning