3Reflection How many of you are good at reflection? Why? (not) Write your answers down in 3 sentences
4Why reflect? Reasons? Brainstorm them To improve teaching practice To learn fromEnhance your problem solving skillsTo become a critical thinkerTo make decisionsImprove your organisational skillsManage personal changeAcknowledging your personal valuesTake your own adviceRoffey-Barentsen & Malthouse (2009)
5“Often we hear that one of the most important tasks of education is to teach students how to learn on their own throughout their lifetimes. But how do we learn how to learn? How do we know what we’ve learned and how to direct our own future learning?These are all questions addressed by the concept of metacognition. Simply put, metacognition means “thinking about one’s own thinking.”
6There are two aspects of metacognition: reflection—thinking about what we know;self-regulation—managing how we go about learning.Thinking About Thinking:MetacognitionDeveloped by Linda Darling-Hammond, Kim Austin, Melissa Cheung, and Daisy MartinWith Contributions From Brigid Barron, Annmarie Palincsar, and Lee ShulmanStanford University School of Education
7Bit o’ theory 1.Common Sense reflecting ( Moon 2004,p.82) “ reflection is akin to thinking but with more added to this”Thoughts that occur after a difficult sessionYou know you have to do better and try to work out whyIts vague because lacks element of directed learningWrite a quick scenario of what happened
82. Dewey’s reflective thinking Main interest stems from problem solvingWhy do you think?Starts with a worry or a problem?So you feel uneasy and need to stop and take stockHere you now identify the problemThis is reflective thinkingNot always easy or pleasant“What did I do?” “Could I have been better?”
93. SchÖn, Donald(1983)- Reflective Practice Reflecting on teaching and learning to modify practice is drawn from the work of Schon. He discussed the benefits of reflective practice for those engaged in professional occupations. acquisition of new knowledge was less important than the need to reflect and inform practice in an ever-changing workplace. He said there are different parts of the reflective process:1. Reflection in Action is working with awarenessthinking on your feetresponding to feedback signsstoring experience for next timeExamples? Where in your teaching have you had to do this?
102. Reflection on Action is the usual meaning of reflective practice 2. Reflection on Action is the usual meaning of reflective practice. It is:reflecting after the eventmaking sense of what you didhaving that ‘reflective conversation’3. Reflection for Action: thinking in advance as you plan your teaching with your knowledge of the learners
11More than omphaloskepsis!!? Omphaloskepsis is contemplation of your navel as an aid to meditationSO ….if Reflective Practice is to become anything more than random navel gazing,it is advisable that you, the reflective practitioner, employs a particular process or model.
13David Kolb(1984) Experiential Learning Cycle DoPlanreflectKolb's learning theory sets out four distinct learning styles (or preferences), which are based on a four-stage learning cycle. (which might also be interpreted as a 'training cycle'). In this respect Kolb's model is particularly elegant, since it offers both a way to understand individual people's different learning styles, and also an explanation of a cycle of experiential learning that applies to us all.Kolb includes this 'cycle of learning' as a central principle his experiential learning theory, typically expressed as four-stage cycle of learning, in which 'immediate or concrete experiences' provide a basis for 'observations and reflections'. These 'observations and reflections' are assimilated and distilled into 'abstract concepts' producing new implications for action which can be 'actively tested' in turn creating new experiences.Kolb says that ideally (and by inference not always) this process represents a learning cycle or spiral where the learner 'touches all the bases', ie., a cycle of experiencing, reflecting, thinking, and acting. Immediate or concrete experiences lead to observations and reflections. These reflections are then assimilated (absorbed and translated) into abstract concepts with implications for action, which the person can actively test and experiment with, which in turn enable the creation of new experiences.Kolb's model therefore works on two levels - a four-stage cycle:Concrete Experience - (CE)Reflective Observation - (RO)Abstract Conceptualization - (AC)Active Experimentation - (AE)and a four-type definition of learning styles, (each representing the combination of two preferred styles, rather like a two-by-two matrix of the four-stage cycle styles, as illustrated below), for which Kolb used the terms:Diverging (CE/RO)Assimilating (AC/RO)Converging (AC/AE)Accommodating (CE/AE)Read
14Or in other words:Kolb’s (1984) Experiential Learning Cycle is relevant to this process of on-going reflection and self-evaluation. Adapt what you have to teach to suit your learnersExperience/teachHave reflective conversation with a colleagueLearnPut new learning into practiceStart cycle again
15How to use it practically Do itGet some feedback from the class about how they experienced itReflect on itWhat went well? what went less well?Read up on itSearch Internet – read a book/journal;Plan the next stageSo what will you change?
16Gibbs reflective cycle(1988) Encourages reflective practice by asking questions at each stageGibbs’ reflective cycle encourages you to think systematically about the phases of an experience or activity, and you should use all the headings to structure your reflection.Gibbs' reflective cycle can be really useful in making you think through all the phases of an experience or activity. For example, if you missed out Gibbs’ ‘Evaluation’ phase, you can go back and add in some thoughts about what you got right as well – then perhaps the session went better than you thought. As a practitioner it is easy to be too conscious of the things that didn’t go well. Don’t be too hard on yourself! The Evaluation phase makes you think about the positive as well as areas for improvement.Gibbs G (1988) Learning by Doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods. Further Education Unit. Oxford Polytechnic: Oxford.
17Brookfield’s (1995) critical lenses This is the next step – adds a critical element to reflection1. the point of view of the teacher (autobiography)- one of the most important sources of insight into teaching to which we have access.” (1995 p.31)2. the point of view of the learners3. the point of view of our colleagues4. the point of view of theories and literatureWhat did you do? How did your learners feel? Colleagues act as critical friends, take into account what the theory saysCritical LensesBrookfield (1995) suggests that we employ four “critical lenses” through which to view and reflect upon our practice. These are:our own view (which he refers to as autobiography);that of our students;that of our fellow professionals;and the various theoretical perspectives propounded in educational literature. Despite the fact that teachers’ personal experience runs the risk of being dismissed as “merely anecdotal”, Brookfield, whilst conceding that “all experience is inherently idiosyncratic”, asserts that our autobiographies are “one of the most important sources of insight into teaching to which we have access.” (1995 p.31)Examining our own experiences as learners as well as teachers helps us “to uncover our most deeply embedded allegiances and motivations as teachers.” (Brookfield, 1995; p.32)However, in considering any particular learning experience, tutors should not merely be asking what "worked well" for themselves (often constrained to considerations of classroom and lesson management) but should also be asking whether or not the learning experience was a profitable one for their students (with regard to achievement of learning outcomes). Additionally, tutors should consider whether the learning experience was inclusive and motivational.“This is why, in my opinion, the most fundamental metacriterion for judging whether or not good teaching is happening is the extent to which teachers deliberately and systematically try to get inside students’ heads and see classrooms and learning from their point of view.” (Brookfield, p.35)Talking to colleagues about what happens in our classroom (all too rare an occurrence) may help to throw new light on our experiences; not necessarily because it provides a solution but because it may help us to realise that what we thought were our own idiosyncratic failings are in fact shared by others who work in similar settings.Similarly,“Studying theory can help us realise that what we thought were signs of our personal failings as teachers can actually be interpreted as the inevitable consequences of certain economic, social and political processes.” (Brookfield, p36)Brookfield, S. (1995) Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher. San Francisco: Jossey BassFrom
18Rolfe et al (2001) Framework for reflexive practice What? – describe the situation; achievements, consequences, responses, feelings, and problems.So what? – discuss what has been learnt; learning about self, relationships, models, attitudes, cultures, actions, thoughts, understanding, and improvements.Now what? – identify what needs to be done in order to; improve future outcomes, and develop learningthird and final stage is of the greatest importance in contributing to practice Rolfe et al (2001).Descriptive level of reflectionWhat … … is the problem/difficulty/ reason for being stuck/reason for feeling bad/reason we don’t get on/etc., etc.?… was my role in the situation?… was I trying to achieve?… actions did I take?… was the response of others?… were the consequences· for the patient?· for myself?· for others?… feelings did it evoke· in the patient?· in myself?· in others?… was good/bad about the experience?Theory - and knowledge - building level of reflectionSo what … … does this tell me/teach me/imply/mean about me/my patient/others/our relationship/my patient’s care/the model of care I am using/my attitudes/my patient’s attitudes/etc., etc.?… was going through my mind as I acted?… did I base my actions on?… other knowledge can I bring to the situation?· experiential· personal· scientific… could/should I have done to make it better?… is my new understanding of the situation?… broader issues arise from the situation?Action-orientated (reflexive) level of reflectionNow what …… do I need to do in order to make things better/stop being stuck/improve my patient’s care/resolve the situation/feel better/get on better/etc., etc.?… broader issues need to be considered if this action is to be successful?… might be the consequences of this action?
19Task 1 Using the handout- basic introduction Use the sample on page 1. Break it down intoA) the description (what happened?)B) The interpretation (what’s most useful about the idea/event?)C) The outcome (what was learned?)
20Task 2 Jenny Moon says reflective writing has 4 categories Samuels (2008) devised 5See handoutsFrom the 2 excerpts work out which is “reporting level” writing and which is “reconstructing level“ writing- why?
21ReferencesRoffey-Barentsen, J. & Malthouse, R.(2009) Reflective Practice in the Lifelong Learning Sector. Exeter: Learning MattersMoon, J.(2004) A handbook of reflective and experiential learning theory and practice. London:RoutledgeFalmer