4Part One – Defining the A&Os What do they need to know?What are the aims and objectives of the session?
5Identify what they want to learn FIRST OF ALL, DEFINE WHAT THEY NEED TO KNOWTHAT WILL HELP YOU DEFINE THE AIMS & OBJECTIVESAsk themCheck lists (eg from the medical school)problem case analysis - things you know you don’t knowrandom case analysis - issues you may not have identifiedcritical incident analysis - learning from mistakes and near missesPUNs (patient unmet needs)DENs (doctors educational needs)
6Aims & Objectives Important for any session you do Good starting point – focusAims are general“better insight into management of COPD”Objectives are specific“understand the different therapies and their step line use” (GOLD)
7Part Two – Domains of Learning What are we trying to teach?
8What are we trying to teach? K.S.A.knowledgeskills/competenciesattitudes
9Knowledgefactual; evolving; evidence baseEvaluating and using ‘knowledge’ - critical appraisal; application of knowledgeSkills & CompetenciesClinical, Practical, Consultation, Communication, Problem solvingResearch and audit (evaluating and doing)Attitudesethics etc; self awareness; commitment to maintaining standardsPersonal care for patientsPractice context - practice issues; regulatory frameworkBroader context - medico-political/legal/social; ethnic/cultural
10Part Three – Educational Theory What principles and philosophies in education might help with our teaching?
11Linking knowledge to skills - Miller’s pyramid DoesShows howKnows howKnows
12Experiential learning (Kolb) concrete experienceobservation, reflectionformation of abstract concepts and generalisationstesting implications of concepts in new situations
13Reflective practitioner The professional practitioner reflects on their knowledge whilst engaging in activity. This enables them to adapt to the potentially unique context or problem with which they are faced (Schön,1983)Professional education should provide people with the opportunity to reflect on their practice and to identify the theories embedded in their routine work (Coles, 1994)
14Constructivism (3 Cs)Construction - knowledge builds on what is already knownContext - is important in learning and in applying itCollaboration - important in exploring different perspectives because knowledge varies in different contexts and cultures
15Adult learning = androgogy learning what’s important to youapplicable in the real world (context)learner, not teacher, is responsiblelearning is self directedlearning is continuous, must adapt to new situations
16Feedback - definitionInformation about performance or behaviour which leads to action to affirm or develop performance or behaviour, i eto affirm what you do wellto help you develop in areas you do less well
17Part Four – teaching methods How else can we do it?
18Electronic information sources Acquiring knowledgeLecturesTutorialsBooksJournalsElectronic information sources
19Project based learning Other MethodsLectureDebateBuzz groupsMini-lectureBrainstormingAction learningProject based learningCase discussionCritical incidentRole playTriadic teachingPBLVideo teachingTask groupsBalint groupmicroteachingBuzz group = to combat inactivity; small group learning; “turn to a neighbour and share opinions and reactions for a short time”, then feed backMini-lecture = a short burst of input, fact or theory, in the course of a group activity aimed at stimulating discussion or linking up points. Participants may contribute their own ideas, thus increasing involvement with the material, introducing variety, distributing effort and responsibility, and developing presentation skills.Task groups = subgroups are each allocated a topic to analyse and report back to a plenary as a contribution towards a wide picture; collaborative learning from each otherAction learning = learning by doing; “watch one, do one, teach one”; good for practical skillsProject based learning = another learning by doing methodCase discussion = indispenable; rooted in real life and in the personal experience of the learner; real questions; real solutions; yet flexible enough to range beyond the immediateBalint = focuses mainly on the doctor and the awareness of his own feelings about an unfolding case that is presenting challenges, rather than the clinical content of the case; good for feelings and attitudes; identifying the feelings of othersRole-play = very valuable technique. Works best when it arises naturally in the process of 1-1 or group teaching. Role reversal is helpful too.Triadic teaching = three participants – the subject, the listener, the observerMicroteaching = analysing complex behaviour like communication skills. Dissecting it and focussing on the component parts. Usually via video work.
20Difficult CasesGood for those difficult situations
22What Makes a Good Teaching Session? (LAST SLIDE) Tailored to learner’s learning styleDependent on learner’s knowledge and experienceGet the learner to do the groundworkUse educational toolsVideosBooks and bookletsPapers and articleselectronic sources (software, internet)Giving the tutorial direction - link to experienceMaintaining interest InteractOpen-ended questionsGive timeVary contentBaggage section