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COMPARATIVE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION APPROACHES TO STUDY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION.

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Presentation on theme: "COMPARATIVE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION APPROACHES TO STUDY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION."— Presentation transcript:

1 COMPARATIVE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION APPROACHES TO STUDY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

2 Recapitulation Roots of public administration Characteristics of public administration Definition of public administration Policy formulation and policy execution Political Science and Public Administration

3 THE P O R D S C O R B VIEW (Luther Gullick 1937) P– PIANNING O– ORGANIZATION S– STAFFING D– DIRECTING CO-COORDINATING R-- REPORTING B-- BUDGETING

4 PLANNING & ORGANIZING Planning, that is working out in broad outline the things that need to be done and the methods for doing them to accomplish the purpose set for the enterprise Organizing, that is the establishment of the formal structure of authority through which work subdivisions are arranged, defined, and co-ordinated for the defined objective ;

5 STAFFING & DIRECTING Staffing, that is the whole personnel function of bringing in and training the staff and maintaining favorable conditions of work;

6 DIRECTING & COORDINATING Directing, that is the continuous task of making decisions and embodying them in specific and general orders and instructions and serving as the leader of the enterprise Co-Ordinating, that is the all important duty of interrelating the various parts of the work; OR that means is a common thread that run through all the activities of the organisation.

7 REPORTING & BUDGETING Reporting, that is keeping those to whom the executive is responsible informed as to what is going on, which thus includes keeping himself and his subordinates informed through records, research, and inspection Budgeting, with all that goes with budgeting in the form of planning, accounting and control.

8 PORDSCORB CRITISM IT CANNOT BE EQUALLY APPLICABLE TO ALL PUBLIC SECTOR ENTITIES HAVINGDIFFERENT FUNCTIONS/PROBLEMS IT ADRESSES ONLY THE TECHNIQUE BUT NOT THE SUBSTANCE/SUBJECT OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

9 SUBJECT MATTER VIEW ADMINISTRATION IS CONCERNED WITH WHAT AND HOW OF GOVERNMENT. WHAT IS THE SUBJECT MATTER/TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE OF THE FIELD WHAT TECHNIQUE OF MANAGEMENT WHICH CAN ENSURE SUCCESS BOTH ARE INDISPENSABLE/TOGETHER THEY FOR THE SYNTHESIS CALLED ADMINISTRATION

10 APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION BUREAUCRATIC APPROACH LEGAL APPROACH HISTORICAL APPROACH SYSTEMS APPROACH STRUCTURAL APPROACH HUMAN RELATIONS APPROACH

11 Bureaucratic Approach One of the most important approach is based on Max Weber's ideal-type bureaucratic model. This has inherent structural characteristics of hierarchy, "specialisation, role-specificity, recruitment by merit, promotion by seniority-cum-merit, career development, &thing, discipline, distinction between personal and official means The emphasis in this approach is on rationality and efficiency.

12 LEGAL APPROACH IT STUDIES PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AS PART OF LAW WITH EMPHASIS ON LEGAL STRUCTURE,ORGANIZATION,POWERS, FUNCTIONS AND LIMITATIONS OF PUBLIC AUTHORITIES

13 HISTORICAL APPROACH IT STUDIES PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION THROUGH THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTS. IT ORGANISEA AND INTERPRETS THE INFORMATION PERTAINING TO EXISTENCE AND PERFORMANCE OF ADMINISTRATIVE AGENCIES AND PROCESSES IN A CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER

14 The Systems approach The systems approach views an administrative system as a subsystem of the society. It looks at various parts of an administrative system (formal organisation. informal organisation, roles, individuals) and examines the inter linkages among various parts. Besides, the approach analyses the dynamic interactions between the administrative system and its external environment.

15 Structural Approach A related approach, drawn mainly from Anthropology and Sociology, is the structural- functional approach. A structure, according to this approach, is a pattern of behaviour that has become a standard feature of a social system. Further, a function denotes the impact of a structure on another structure and the interrelationships among various structures

16 HUMAN RELATIONS APPROACH The human relations approach is based on principles of social psychology focuses on the social context at work rather than regarding the worker asresponsive only to financial incentives

17 APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION CASE METHOD APPROACH BEHAVIOURAL APPROACH PUBLIC CHOICE APPROACH DEVELOPMENT APPROACH ECOLOGICAL APPROACH COMPARATIVE APPROACH

18 CASE METHOD APPROACH IT DEALS WITH THE SPECIFIC ACCOUNT OR NARRATION OF SPECIFIC EVENTS WHICH LEAD TO A DECISION BY THE ADMINISTRATOR.IT SEEKS TO RECONSTRUCT THE ADMINISTRATIVE REALITIES AND ACQUAINT THE STUDENTS WITH THE DECISION MAKING SCENARIO

19 Behavioural approach The behavioural approach emphasises '"acts", rigorous scientific methods of data collection and analysis, quantification, experimentation, testing, verification and an, interdisciplinary orientation. It focuses on the analysis of human behaviour in administrative settings

20 Public choice Public choice analysis has roots in positive analysis ("what is") but is often used for normative purposes ("what ought to be"), to identify a problem or suggest how a system could be improved by changes in constitutional rules, the subject of constitutional econonomics

21 Developmental approach This approach focuses on certain characteristics of a dynamic administrative system, e.g. goal- orientation, change-orientation, progressiveness, innovativeness, participation and responsiveness.

22 Ecological approach The ecological approach which has been stressed considerably by Fred Riggs. examines the interactions between an administrative system and its external environment. Thus the impact of the political system, economic system, social system and the cultural system, on the structure and behavior of the administrative system as well as the influence of the administrative system on these environmental structures

23 Comparative Approach Comparative Public Administration (CPA) is an applied, intercultural, interdisciplinary, explanatory field of study which carries out cross- cultural investigations in order to provide solutions for management problems and develop management technologies/best practices

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