Presentation on theme: "Organisational Behaviour Dr Seema Sant. Lecture plan Structure of the course Issues to explore in the course Historical overview."— Presentation transcript:
Organisational Behaviour Dr Seema Sant
Lecture plan Structure of the course Issues to explore in the course Historical overview
SOME RECOMMENDED SOURCES References: 1) Understanding Organizational Behavior – Udai Pareek 2) Organizational Behavior – Stephen Robbins 3) Organizational Behavior – Fred Luthans 4) Organizational Behavior – L. M. Prasad (Sultan Chand)
Organizational behaviour (OB) “the study of human behaviour in organizational contexts with a focus on individual and group processes and actions” (pp.2) Issues to explore in the course
Hong Kong stock exchange, 1994
“An intitative approach [to organisations] fails to represent what it means to be human, misrepresents the qualities of the relational processes and, more generally, grossly distorts the relationships between person and organisation” (Hoskings and Morley 1991:IX) Issues to explore in the course
“The relationship between a person and a context involves accommodation (changing oneself) and assimilation (changing the context)… people are both products of their contexts and participants in the shaping of those contexts.” (Hoskings and Morley, 1991:5) Any Question? Issues to explore in the course
The notion of an organisation as an imperative, absolute entity, is the direct outcome of historical transformations occurred in Europe and North America from the end of the 18th century onwards: Before the 19 th Century: Experience of Artisan work (e.g. Ironsmith) – Technical skills, personal competence and craft pride constitutive of the working process. Industrial revolution in the 19 th Century – Close relationship between the subject of work and his/her activity was lost Historical overview
Early 20 th Century: ‘Classical approach’ Advent of scientific management (F.W. Taylor) – Aim: controlling labour through science – Far-reaching process of establishing control and surveillance: to discipline the mind and body of the productive subject was the central concern. – Deconstruction of the task from ‘within’ – Rigid control over time and body movements – Conception and execution as separate domains in hierarchical relationships Technology for social control Historical overview
Hawthorne Studies and the Human Relations Movement (Elton Mayo, ) – Hawthorne studies: environment and productivity? – Results: organizations are social systems, not just technical economical systems – Groups, teamwork, different job roles, human relations are of great significance in organizations – We are motivated by many needs – Leadership should be modified to include concepts of human relations A new discipline of human behaviour and, by extension, Organisational behaviour. (1960s)
Systems Rationalist approach Modern Approach 1. The organization seen as an open socio-technical system. 2. The existence of subsystems which interact with one another. 3. Management is a distinct subsystem which is responsible for direction and coordination of all other subsystems. Organisation (open system view) Transformation process outputs inputs Historical overview
Andreas Gursky’s The factory ► People’s subjectivity in relation to organisational processes. ► Political and cultural nature of social relations. ► Social construction of organisational reality, co-creation of the phenomenon you are seeking to study. Historical overview Symbolic-Interpretative perspective
Organizational Design Jobs Work Design Performance Appraisal Organizational Structure Organizational Variables that Affect Human Behavior Communication Human Behavior
Human Behavior in the Organization Clockworks or Snake pit? Organizational vs. Individual Point of View
Internal/External Perspective of Human Behavior Understand behavior in terms of External events, environmental forces, & behavioral consequences Thoughts,feelings, past experiences, and needs Explain behavior by examining Surrounding external events & environmental forces Individuals’ history & personal value system Internal Perspective External Perspective Each perspective has produced motivational & leadership theories.
Psychology the science of human behavior Management the study of overseeing activities and supervising people in organizations Anthropology the science of the learned behavior of human beings Medicine the applied science of healing or treatment of diseases to enhance an individual’s health and well-being Engineering the applied science of energy & matter Sociology the science of society Interdisciplinary Influences on Organizational Behavior
Toward an OB Discipline
Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field E X H I B I T 1–3 (cont’d) Psychology The science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals.
Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d) E X H I B I T 1–3 (cont’d) Sociology The study of people in relation to their fellow human beings.
Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d) E X H I B I T 1–3 (cont’d) Social Psychology An area within psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology and that focuses on the influence of people on one another.
Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d) E X H I B I T 1–3 (cont’d) Anthropology The study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities.
Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d) E X H I B I T 1–3 (cont’d) Political Science The study of the behavior of individuals and groups within a political environment.
To explore in the course BY INTRODUCING DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES TO THE UNDERSTANDING OF PEOPLE AND ORGANISATIONS, WE HOPE: TO STIMULATE YOUR SEARCH FOR NEW KNOWLEDGE, CREATIVITY AND SKILLS AS ORGANISATIONAL PRACTITIONERS