2 Lecture plan Structure of the course Issues to explore in the course Historical overview
3 SOME RECOMMENDED SOURCES References:1) Understanding Organizational Behavior – Udai Pareek2) Organizational Behavior – Stephen Robbins3) Organizational Behavior – Fred Luthans4) Organizational Behavior – L. M. Prasad (Sultan Chand)
4 Issues to explore in the course Organizational behaviour (OB)“the study of human behaviour in organizationalcontexts with a focus on individual and groupprocesses and actions” (pp.2)
5 Issues to explore in the course Hong Kong stock exchange, 1994
6 Issues to explore in the course “An intitative approach [to organisations] fails to represent what it means to be human, misrepresents the qualities of the relational processes and, more generally, grossly distorts the relationships between person and organisation” (Hoskings and Morley 1991:IX)
7 Issues to explore in the course “The relationship between a person and a context involves accommodation (changing oneself) and assimilation (changing the context)… people are both products of their contexts and participants in the shaping of those contexts.” (Hoskings and Morley, 1991:5)Any Question?
8 Historical overview Before the 19th Century: The notion of an organisation as an imperative, absolute entity, is the direct outcome of historical transformations occurred in Europe and North America from the end of the 18th century onwards:Before the 19th Century:Experience of Artisan work (e.g. Ironsmith)Technical skills, personal competence and craft pride constitutive of the working process.Industrial revolution in the 19th CenturyClose relationship between the subject of work and his/her activity was lost
9 Historical overview Early 20th Century: ‘Classical approach’ Advent of scientific management (F.W. Taylor)Aim: controlling labour through scienceFar-reaching process of establishing control and surveillance: to discipline the mind and body of the productive subject was the central concern.Deconstruction of the task from ‘within’Rigid control over time and body movementsConception and execution as separate domains in hierarchical relationshipsTechnology for social control
11 Historical overview Hawthorne Studies and the Human Relations Movement (Elton Mayo, )Hawthorne studies: environment and productivity?Results: organizations are social systems, not just technical economical systemsGroups, teamwork, different job roles, human relations are of great significance in organizationsWe are motivated by many needsLeadership should be modified to include concepts of human relationsA new discipline of human behaviour and, by extension, Organisational behaviour. (1960s)
12 Historical overview Systems Rationalist approach Modern ApproachOrganisation (open system view)Transformation processinputsoutputsThe organization seen as an open socio-technical system.The existence of subsystems which interact with one another.Management is a distinct subsystem which is responsible for direction and coordination of all other subsystems.
13 Historical overviewSymbolic-InterpretativeperspectiveAndreas Gursky’s The factoryPeople’s subjectivity in relation to organisational processes.Political and cultural nature of social relations.Social construction of organisational reality, co-creation of the phenomenon you are seeking to study.
14 Organizational Behavior: Dynamics in Organizations PsychosocialInterpersonalBehavioralOrganizationalBehavior
15 Organizational Variables that Affect Human BehaviorWorkDesignPerformanceAppraisalCommunicationJobsOrganizationalStructureHumanBehaviorOrganizationalDesign
16 Organizational vs. Individual Point of ViewClockworks or Snake pit?Human Behaviorin the Organization4
17 Internal/External Perspective of Human Behavior Internal PerspectiveExternal PerspectiveUnderstand behavior in terms ofThoughts,feelings, past experiences, and needsExternal events, environmental forces, & behavioral consequencesExplain behavior by examiningIndividuals’ history & personal value systemSurrounding external events & environmental forcesEach perspective has producedmotivational & leadership theories.
18 Sociology Psychology Engineering Medicine Management the scienceof societyPsychologythe science ofhuman behaviorEngineeringthe applied scienceof energy & matterInterdisciplinaryInfluences onOrganizationalBehaviorAnthropologythe science of thelearned behaviorof human beingsMedicinethe applied science ofhealing or treatment ofdiseases to enhance anindividual’s health andwell-beingManagementthe study of overseeingactivities and supervisingpeople in organizations
20 Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field Psychology The science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals.E X H I B I T 1–3 (cont’d)
21 Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d) Sociology The study of people in relation to their fellow human beings.E X H I B I T 1–3 (cont’d)
22 Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d) Social Psychology An area within psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology and that focuses on the influence of people on one another.E X H I B I T 1–3 (cont’d)
23 Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d) Anthropology The study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities.E X H I B I T 1–3 (cont’d)
24 Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d) Political Science The study of the behavior of individuals and groups within a political environment.E X H I B I T 1–3 (cont’d)
25 To explore in the course BY INTRODUCING DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES TO THE UNDERSTANDING OF PEOPLE AND ORGANISATIONS, WE HOPE:TO STIMULATE YOUR SEARCH FOR NEW KNOWLEDGE, CREATIVITY AND SKILLS AS ORGANISATIONAL PRACTITIONERS