2 Many eminent authors on the subject have defined the term “management” Management has been defined in various ways.Many eminent authors on the subject have defined the term “management”
3 According to Peter F Drucker 1- Definitions:According to James L Lundy“Management is principally the task of planning, coordinating, motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective”.According to Peter F Drucker“Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages a business and manages managers and manages workers and work”.
4 According to Joseph Massie According to Stanley Vance“Management is simply the process of decision-making and control over the actions of human beings for the purpose of attaining predetermined goals”.According to Joseph Massie« Managment is defined as the process by which a cooperative group directs action towards comon goals
5 According to Mary Cushing Niles According to Lawrence A Appley “Good management or scientific management achieves a social objective with the best use of human, and material resourses, energy and time and with satisfaction for the participants and the public”.According to Lawrence A Appley“Management is the development of people and not the direction of things”.
6 From the above definitions,we conclude that management fulffils the following functions: Formulation of objectives, plans and policies.Collection of people, money, materials, machines and methods.Direction and motivation of employees.Coordination and Cooperation between employees.Supervision and control of performance.
7 2- Definition of an Organization. An organization is a group of people who agree to perform specific tasksfor the accomplishment of a common goal.There are a wide range of different organizations within our social structure that allow our society to function and fulfill its public duties;Among them we mention the followings:Educational Organizations.Medical OrganizationsPolitical Organizations.Religious Organizations.Business Organizations.
8 3-Types of Organizations There are basically two types of organizations:1- For profit organizationsA for-profit organization exists to generate a profit, that is, to take in more money than it spends.2 For non- profit organizations.A for non-profit organization exists to provide a particular service to the community.Thus an organization is a social entity which is goal-oriented and which is linked to its external environment.
9 4- The Importance of Organizations: Why are organizations important?Organizations are important because of the following reasons:They assemble resources to achieve desired goals and outcomes.They produce goods and services effeciently.They facilitate innovation.They use modern methods of manufacturing and technology.
10 5- How does an Organization work? An Organization uses Resources such as:People.Raw-materals.Information-systemsFinancial Resources.These are refered to as INPUT.The Input goes through aTransformation System to produce an OUTPUT which basically consists of goods or services
11 6- Functions of Management: According to many experts in the field of management there are five fundamental functions of management.PlanningOrganizingStaffingDirectingControlling
12 1- Planning It is the basic function of management. It involves: - Selection of goals.- Establishment of strategies for the achievement of goals.In selecting goals the manager should consider their feasibility.
13 2-Organizing Organizing is deciding what jobs need to be done. According to Henry Fayol,“To organize a business is to provide it with everything useful for its functioning i.e. raw material, tools, capital and personnel”Organizing involves:Identification and classification of activities.Assignment of tasks and duties.Delegation of authority and responsibility.
14 Performance appraisal. 3- StaffingAccording to Kootz & O’Donell,“The managerial function of staffing involves managing the organization’s structure through an effectiveselection, appraisal & development of personnel ‘’.Staffing involves:Selection, Recruitment, and Placement in a position.Training and development.Remuneration.Performance appraisal.Promotions and transfer.
15 4- DirectingThrough the Directing function a manager influences, guides, supervises, and motivates sub-ordinates for the achievement of the organizational goals.Direction involves:SupervisionMotivationLeadershipCommunication
16 5- ControllingControlling is the measurement and correction of the subordinates’performanceControlling includes:Establishment of a performance standard.Measurement of performance.Corrective action.
17 7- Management as a Process As a process management consists of three aspects:A social processIt makes useful and productive relationships among people in an organization.An integrating processIt integrates human and financial resources to achieve the organizational purpose.A continuous processIt is a never-ending process concerned with identification and solution of organizational problems.
18 8 -Management as an Activity. “Management is what a manager does”.Like various other activities performed by human beings management is also an activity because a manager is one who accomplishes objectives by directing the efforts of others.
19 Management as an activity includes: The Informational activitiy: A communication link has to be maintained with subordinates and superiors for an effective functioning of the enterprise.The Decisional activitiy: Managers are involved in decisions of different kinds. The decision made by one manager becomes the basis of action to be taken by other managers.(E.g. A Sales Manager can decide for the media & content of advertising).The Inter-personal activitiy: Managers have to interact with superiors and sub-ordinates to maintain good relations with all the organization’s members.