Presentation on theme: "CRed Carbon Reduction 1 Keith Tovey ( ) Н.К.Тови M.A., PhD, CEng, MICE, CEnv Energy Science Director: Low Carbon Innovation Centre School of Environmental."— Presentation transcript:
CRed Carbon Reduction 1 Keith Tovey ( ) Н.К.Тови M.A., PhD, CEng, MICE, CEnv Energy Science Director: Low Carbon Innovation Centre School of Environmental Sciences, UEA. Rotary Club of Norwich District `1070 Assembly: May 9 th 2009 The Path to a Sustainable Low Carbon Future: A Rotarians Guide - Hard Choices Ahead Recipient of James Watt Gold Medal
CRed Carbon Reduction 2 Increasing Occurrence of Drought
CRed Carbon Reduction 3 Increasing Occurrence of DroughtIncreasing Occurrence of Flood
CRed Carbon Reduction Climate Change: Arctic meltdown Summer ice coverage of Arctic Polar Region NASA satellite imagery الصيف الجليد في القطب الشمالي تغطية المنطقة القطبيه ناسا الصور الفضاءيه Source: Nasa 20% reduction in 24 years 20 ٪ تخفيض في 24 سنوات تغير المناخ اثار على الجليديه القطبيه كاب
CRed Carbon Reduction 5 Options for Electricity Generation in Non-Renewable Methods Gas CCGT % (curently 35%) Available now (but is now running out) ~2p + but recent trends put figure much higher UK becomes net importer of gas in 2004 Langeland and Balzand Pipe Lines completed Price projected by Government for Gas generation in
CRed Carbon Reduction 6 Options for Electricity Generation in Non-Renewable Methods Nuclear New Build assumes one new station is completed each year after Gas CCGT % (curently 35%) Available now (but is now running out) ~2p + but recent trends put figure much higher Carbon sequestration either by burying it or use methanolisation as a new transport fuel will not be available at scale required until mid 2020s 6
CRed Carbon Reduction 7 Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable
CRed Carbon Reduction 88 Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable Scroby Sands had a Load factor of 25.8% but nevertheless produced sufficient electricity on average for 60% needs of houses in Norwich. At Peak time sufficient for all houses in Norwich and Ipswich
CRed Carbon Reduction 9 Micro Hydro Scheme operating on Siphon Principle installed at Itteringham Mill, Norfolk. Rated capacity 5.5 kW Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable
CRed Carbon Reduction 10 Area required to supply 5% of UK electricity needs ~ 400 sq km - But energy needed to make PV takes up to 10 years to pay back in UK. Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable
CRed Carbon Reduction 11 Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable But Land Area required is very large - the area of Norfolk and Suffolk would be needed to generatejust over 5% of UK electricity needs. Transport Fuels: Biodiesel? Bioethanol? Compressed gas from methane from waste.
CRed Carbon Reduction 12 Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable
CRed Carbon Reduction 13 Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable
CRed Carbon Reduction 14 Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable Output GWh per annum - Sufficient for houses in Orkney but there are only 4000 in Orkney. Controversy in bringing cables south Save tonnes of CO 2
CRed Carbon Reduction 15 Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable
CRed Carbon Reduction Opted Out Coal: Stations can only run for hours more and must close by 2015 New Nuclear assumes completing 1 nuclear station each year beyond 2018 New Coal assumes completing 1 new coal station each year beyond 2018 There is a looming capacity shortfall Even with a full deployment of renewables. A 10% reduction in demand per house will see a rise of 7% in total demand - Increased population decreased household size Our Choices: They are difficult: Energy Security
CRed Carbon Reduction 17 Do we want to exploit available renewables i.e onshore/offshore wind and biomass. Photovoltaics, tidal, wave are not options for next 20 years. If our answer is NO Do we want to see a renewal of nuclear power ? Are we happy on this and the other attendant risks? If our answer is NO Do we want to return to using coal? then carbon dioxide emissions will rise significantly unless we can develop carbon sequestration within 10 years UNLIKELY If our answer to coal is NO Do we want to leave things are they are and see continued exploitation of gas for both heating and electricity generation? >>>>>> Our Choices: They are difficult
CRed Carbon Reduction 18 Our Choices: They are difficult If our answer is YES By 2020 we will be dependent on GAS for around 70% of our heating and electricity imported from countries like Russia, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Algeria Are we happy with this prospect? >>>>>> If not: We need even more substantial cuts in energy use. Or are we prepared to sacrifice our future to effects of Global Warming? - the North Norfolk Coal Field? Do we wish to reconsider our stance on renewables? Inaction or delays in decision making will lead us down the GAS option route and all the attendant Security issues that raises.
CRed Carbon Reduction 19 How many people know what 9 tonnes of CO 2 looks like? 5 hot air balloons per person per year. On average each person in UK causes the emission of 9 tonnes of CO 2 each year. "Nobody made a greater mistake than he who did nothing because he thought he could do only a little." Edmund Burke (1727 – 1797)
CRed Carbon Reduction 20 Raising Awareness A Toyota Corolla (1400cc): 1 party balloon every 60m. 10 gms of carbon dioxide has an equivalent volume of 1 party balloon. Standby on electrical appliances up to kWh a year balloons. (up to £15 a year) A Mobile Phone charger: > 10 kWh per year ~ 500 balloons each year. Filling up with petrol (~£38 for a full tank – 40 litres) kg of CO2 (5% of one hot air balloon) How far does one have to drive in a small family car (e.g cc Toyota Corolla) to emit as much carbon dioxide as heating an old persons room for 1 hour? 1.6 miles At Gaoan No 1 Primary School in Xuhui District, Shanghai A tumble dryer uses 4 times as much energy as a washing machine. Using it 5 times a week will cost ~ £100 a year just for this appliance alone and emit over half a tonne of CO 2. School children at the Al Fatah University, Tripoli, Libya
CRed Carbon Reduction 21 The Behavioural Dimension Social Attitudes towards energy consumption have a profound effect on actual consumption Data collected from 114 houses in Norwich For a given size of household electricity consumption for appliances [NOT HEATING or HOT WATER] can vary by as much as 9 times. When income levels are accounted for, variation is still 6 times
CRed Carbon Reduction 22 Involve the local Community -The BroadSol Project Annual Solar Gain 910 kWh Solar Collectors installed 27th January 2004 Members of community agreed to purchase Solar Panels at same time. Significantly reduced costs
CRed Carbon Reduction 23 House in Lerwick, Shetland Isles with Solar Panels - less than 15,000 people live north of this in UK! It is all very well for South East, but what about the North? House on Westray, Orkney exploiting passive solar energy from end of February
CRed Carbon Reduction 24 Ways to Respond to the Challenge: Technical Solutions: Solar Photovoltaic Photovoltaic cells are still expensive, but integration of ideas is needed. A church not connected to grid e.g. Fishley, with services only once a week PV would be a sensible option. BUT English Heritage??????? Output depends on type but varies from ~70kWh to ~100kWh per square meter per year. Average house in Norwich consumes ~ 3779 kWh per year, in Market Harborough, 5214 kWh per year
CRed Carbon Reduction 25 Responding to the Challenge: Technical Solutions: The Heat Pump Any low grade source of heat may be used Coils buried in garden 1 – 1.5 m deep Bore holes Lakes/Rivers are ideal Air can be used but is not as good Best performance if the temperature source between outside source and inside sink is as small as possible. Heat pump delivers 3, 4, or even 5 times as much heat as electricity put in.
CRed Carbon Reduction 26 Micro CHP Ways to Respond to the Challenge: Technical Solutions Micro CHP plant for homes are being trialled. Replaces the normal boiler But there is a problem in summer as there is limited demand for heat – electrical generation will be limited. Backup generation is still needed in summer unless integrated with solar photovoltaic? In community schemes explore opportunity for multiple unit provision of hot water in summer, but only single unit in winter.
CRed Carbon Reduction 27 6 kW Proven Turbine powering a Heat Pump providing heating for Parish Kirk, Westray Horizontal Axis Mini Wind
CRed Carbon Reduction 28 Involve the local Community The residents on the island of Burray (Orkney) campaigned for a wind turbine. On average they are more than self-sufficient in electricity needs and indeed are a net exporter of electricity. Many of the Islanders bought shares in the project and are now reaping the reward. Orkney is hoping to be a zero net emitter of carbon dioxide by 2015.
CRed Carbon Reduction Which can spread the message Engage with Schools Dispel myths Use simple messages that people understand often monetary values mean more Think about our own actions. –Tumble drying – once a week amounts to £25 a year Can we car share when going to District Council? –Four people travelled separately from North Norfolk to District 1080 Assembly. They would have emitted and extra 75kg CO 2 extra compared to travelling together at a cost of £30 extra in fuel. Energy Security issues will be just as important as Carbon reduction in the UK. Energy Security will increasingly affect us in next 10 years Global warming will increasingly affect our fellow citizens of the planet in the developing world in the next 10 years Addressing Energy Security by taking small steps now will also help with Global Warming Otherwise the Young will suffer during their life times. We in Rotary have the resources to work with the Young to combat the challenges facing us. Rotary is a Community
CRed Carbon Reduction 30 WEBSITE This presentation will be on WEB from this evening >follow Academic Resources Link Need to act now otherwise we might have to make choice of whether we drive 1.6 miles or heat an old person s room And Finally Are you up to the Challenge?: Will you make a pledge? Lao Tzu ( BC) Chinese Artist and Taoist philosopher BC If you do not change direction, you may end up where you are heading.