Presentation on theme: "Energy Futures Hard Choices Ahead Keith Tovey M.A., PhD, CEng, MICE Energy Science Director: Low Carbon Innovation Centre School of Environmental Sciences."— Presentation transcript:
Energy Futures Hard Choices Ahead Keith Tovey M.A., PhD, CEng, MICE Energy Science Director: Low Carbon Innovation Centre School of Environmental Sciences CRed Seminar 8 th March 2006 CRed
Total winter precipitation Total summer precipitation Source: Tim Osborne, CRU Change in precipitation 1961-2001
1.0 0.5 0.0 -0.5 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 Temperature Rise ( o C) 1.0 0.5 0.0 -0.5 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 Temperature Rise ( o C) 1.0 0.5 0.0 -0.5 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 Temperature Rise ( o C) Source: Hadley Centre, The Met.Office actual predicted Is Global Warming man made? Prediction: Anthropogenic only Not a good match between 1920 and 1970 Prediction: Natural only good match until 1960 Prediction: Natural and Anthropogenic Generally a good match Predictions include: Greenhouse Gas emissions Sulphates and ozone Solar and volcanic activity
1979 2003 Climate Change Arctic meltdown 1979 - 2003 Summer ice coverage of Arctic Polar Region –Nasa satellite imagery Source: Nasa http://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/topstory/2003/1023esuice.htmlhttp://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/topstory/2003/1023esuice.html 20% reduction in 24 years
Options for Electricity Generation in 2020 - Non-Renewable Methods Difficult Choices Ahead
Options for Electricity Generation in 2020 - Renewable
Options for Electricity Generation in 2020 - Renewable
Solar Energy - The BroadSol Project Annual Solar Gain 910 kWh Solar Collectors installed 27th January 2004
House in Lerwick, Shetland Isles - less than 15,000 people live north of this in UK! It is all very well for South East, but what about the North?
Our Choices: They are difficult If our answer is NO Do we want to return to using coal? then carbon dioxide emissions will rise significantly unless we can develop carbon sequestration within 10 years which is unlikely If our answer to coal is NO Do we want to leave things are they are and see continued exploitation of gas for both heating and electricity generation? >>>>>> Do we want to exploit available renewables i.e onshore/offshore wind and biomass. Photovoltaics, tidal, wave are not options for next 20 years. If our answer is NO Do we want to see a renewal of nuclear power Are we happy on this and the other attendant risks?
Our Choices: They are difficult If our answer is YES By 2020 we will be dependent on around 70% of our heating and electricity from GAS imported from countries like Russia, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Algeria Are we happy with this prospect? >>>>>> If not: We need even more substantial cuts in energy use. Or are we prepared to sacrifice our future to effects of Global Warming? - the North Norfolk Coal Field? Do we wish to reconsider our stance on renewables? Inaction or delays in decision making will lead us down the GAS option route and all the attendant Security issues that raises.
Our Choices: They are difficult A diverse renewable supply will be local, and will be less prone to cascade power cuts such as those recently in US, London, Italy, Denmark. Conventional generation is based on large units: 500 – 660 MW enough to supply over 1 million homes. These do fail from time to time, and require much greater backup than required for the failure of a few wind turbines. A reactor trip at Sizewell B has an even larger effect ~1188 MW. Renewable generation is less prone to major interruption We must not get drawn into a single issue debate – a rational debate covering all the alternatives is needed. Available Renewables: Nuclear: Conservation Local Small Scale generation saves 8.5% from losses in transmission An important advantage over conventional generation or far Offshore Wind
Our Choices: They are difficult BETTA has to cope with the loss of Sizewell B through a reactor trip. This loss amounts to around 1.5 times the total installed capacity of wind at present. BETTA also has to cope with sudden changes in demand (up to 2.5 times Sizewell B) in a matter of minutes e.g. from TV scheduling. Experience from Denmark shows that the normal maximum change in any one hour from Wind Output is no more than 18% on one occasion in a year. With a larger country area the figures for diverse wind generation will be less in UK. One will not save Carbon Dioxide because power stations are running in case they are needed. There is very little truth in this. The amount of carbon dioxide emitted is dependant on the output of a fossil fuel power station. If it is running under low load it will emit only a very small amount of extra CO 2. Allowing for this, the effect of standby reserve will amount to a maximum of 15 – 20 gms per kWh of Wind Energy compared to 430 for gas or 1000 for coal. A substantial saving is made. Renewable Energy: The Issues Isnt Energy from Renewables unreliable? – we need secure supply
Historic and Future Demand for Electricity Number of households will rise by 17.5% by 2025 and consumption per household must fall by this amount just to remain static
Electricity Options for the Future Low Growth Scenario Capped at 420 TWh 33% CO 2 reduction (Gas) cf 1990 62% CO 2 reduction (Nuclear) cf 1990 68 % increase in gas consumption ( Gas Scenario) cf 2002 Mix option: 6 new nuclear plant by 2025 Mix option: 11% increase in gas consumption (cf 2002) High Growth Scenario Business as Usual 0.3 % CO 2 reduction (Gas) cf 1990 54% CO 2 reduction (Nuclear) cf 1990 257% increase in gas consumption ( Gas Scenario) cf 2002 25% Renewables by 2025 20000 MW Wind 16000 MW Other Renewables inc. Tidal, hydro, biomass etc.
Government Response Energy White Paper – aspiration for 60% cut in CO 2 emissions by 2050 Will require unprecedented partnership activity in local communities to ensure on track by 2020s (– but no indication of how this will be undertaken) There will be much more local generation, in part from medium to small local/community power plant, fuelled by locally grown biomass, from locally generated waste, and from local wind sources. These will feed local distributed networks, which can sell excess capacity into the grid. - Energy White Paper: February 2003
How many people know what 9 tonnes of CO 2 looks like? 5 hot air balloons per person per year. 4 million for Norfolk On average each person in UK causes the emission of 9 tonnes of CO 2 each year. "Nobody made a greater mistake than he who did nothing because he thought he could do only a little." Edmund Burke (1727 – 1797) CRed
Raising Awareness Computers do NOT switch off when using the soft SHUT DOWN. Typically they will waste 60 kg CO 2 a year. A Toyota Corolla (1400cc): 1 party balloon every 60m. 10 gms of carbon dioxide has an equivalent volume of 1 party balloon. Standby on electrical appliances 60+ kWh a year - 3000 balloons. A Mobile Phone charger: > 20 kWh per year ~ 1000 balloons each year. Filling up with petrol (~£35 for a full tank – 40 litres) --------- 90 kg of CO2 (5% of one hot air balloon) How far does one have to drive in a small family car (e.g. 1400 cc Toyota Corolla) to emit as much carbon dioxide as heating an old persons room for 1 hour? 1.6 miles
Average distance estimated by general population - 44 miles Average distance estimated by students - 90 miles Compared to actual value of 1.6 miles
Some Myths about energy Showers save Energy and reduce Carbon Emissions??? SHOWERS do NOT always save energy and MAY WASTE Energy –A typical bath uses 80 litres of hot water and will consume around 2.6 kWh of electricity emitting 1.3 kg of carbon dioxide. A shower (not a power shower) has a flow rate of around 7 litres per minute A shower lasting more than 11 minutes consumes more energy than a bath. Two showers a day and the total time is more than 11 minutes then you will consume more than having a bath once a day. A power shower lasting more than 4 minutes will consume more energy than a bath. Fluorescent Lights Switching on a fluorescent tube consumes as much energy as it uses in 15 minutes so you should not switch them off. Absolute bunkum!!!!! How long does it take for a fluorescent tube to come on? If the statement were true then the fuse would blow every time you switched on a fluorescent tube.
Many residents on island of Burray (Orkney) compaigned for a wind turbine. On average they are fully self-sufficient in electricity needs and indeed are a net exporter of electricity Involve the local Community
Electricity Statistics: Each house in Norwich consumes, 3727 kWh per year. Broadland 5057 kWh Breckland 5612 kWh North Norfolk 5668 kWh South Norfolk 5797 kWh Kings Lynn and West Norfolk 5908 kWh Great Yarmouth 5144 kWh A wind farm the size of Scroby Sands supplies ~ 66% of domestic needs for Norwich (or 22% of total demand) Would save ~ 70 000 to 75 000 tonnes of carbon dioxide a year or 40 000 hot air balloons each year. The alternative: Persuade 30 000 motorists never to drive the car again Or 300 000 motorists to drive 1000 miles less each year.
Conclusions Global Warming will affect us all - in next few decades Energy Security will become increasingly important. Inaction over making difficult decisions now will make Energy Security more likely in future. Move towards energy conservation and LOCAL generation of energy It is as much about the individuals response to use of energy as any technical measures the Government may take. Wind (and possibly biomass) are the only real alternatives for renewable generation in next 5 – 10 years. Otherwise Nuclear??? – but Uranium resources are limited We need to have a multi-pronged approach – we need all available renewables, much more conservation, and possibly some nuclear. Even if we are not convinced about Global Warming – Energy Security issues will shortly start to affect us.
WEBSITE www.cred-uk.org This presentation will be available from tomorrow: > Follow the Academic Resources Link Need to act now otherwise we might have to make choice of whether we drive 1.6 miles or heat an old persons room Conclusions Are you up to the Challenge?: Will you make a pledge? Lao Tzu (604-531 BC) Chinese Artist and Taoist philosopher "If you do not change direction, you may end up where you are heading."