Presentation on theme: "CRed Carbon Reduction 1 HSBC Director of Low Carbon Innovation: Energy Science Director : School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia St."— Presentation transcript:
CRed Carbon Reduction 1 HSBC Director of Low Carbon Innovation: Energy Science Director : School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia St Matthews Church October 17 th 2007 Energy security and climate change: the hard choices facing us. Keith Tovey ( ) M.A., PhD, CEng, MICE, CEnv CRed Recipient of James Watt Medal 5 th October 2007
Climate Change Arctic meltdown Summer ice coverage of Arctic Polar Region –Nasa satellite imagery Source: Nasa 20% reduction in 24 years
3 Options for Electricity Generation in Non-Renewable Methods Nuclear New Build assumes one new station is completed each year after 2018.
4 Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable
5 Area required to supply 5% of UK electricity needs ~ 300 sq km But energy needed to make PV takes up to 8 years to pay back in UK.
6 Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable But Land Area required is very large - the area of Norfolk and Suffolk would be needed to generated just over 5% of UK electricity needs. Transport Fuels: Biodiesel? Bioethanol? Compressed gas from methane from waste.
7 Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable
9 Output GWh per annum Sufficient for house in Orkney Save tonnes of CO 2
10 Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable
11 Solar Energy - The BroadSol Project Annual Solar Gain 910 kWh Solar Collectors installed 27th January 2004
12 Options for Renewable Energy: Solar Thermal Performance of an actual solar collector 9 th December 2006 – 13th October 2007 Average gain (over 3 years) is kWh per day Central Heating Boiler rarely needed for Hot Water from Easter to ~ 1 st October More Hot Water used – the greater amount of solar energy is gained Optimum orientation for solar hot water collectors for most houses is NOT due South
13 Options for Renewable Energy: Solar Thermal Significant surplus of energy in summer Explore increasing temperature limit provided there is an anti-scald device fitted. Training needed to educate users to get optimum from solar collector in mid- season (setting of Central Heating Hot Water timers) Energy/Carbon benefits to be gained by providing solar hot water on a multi- house basis.
14 Opted Out Coal: Stations can only run for hours more and must close by 2015 New Nuclear assumes completing 1 new nuclear station each year beyond 2018 New Coal assumes completing 1 new coal station each year beyond 2018 Our Choices: They are difficult: Energy Security There is a looming capacity shortfall Even with a full deployment of renewables. A 10% reduction in demand per house will see a rise of 7% in total demand - Increased population decreased household size
15 Our Choices: They are difficult If our answer is NO Do we want to return to using coal? then carbon dioxide emissions will rise significantly unless we can develop carbon sequestration and apply it to ALL our COAL fired power stations within 10 years - unlikely. If our answer to coal is NO Do we want to leave things are they are and see continued exploitation of gas for both heating and electricity generation? >>>>>> Do we want to exploit available renewables i.e onshore/offshore wind and biomass. Photovoltaics, tidal, wave are not options for next 20 years. If our answer is NO Do we want to see a renewal of nuclear power Are we happy with this and the other attendant risks?
16 Our Choices: They are difficult If our answer is YES By 2020 we will be dependent on around 70% of our heating and electricity from GAS imported from countries like Russia, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Algeria Are we happy with this prospect? >>>>>> If not: We need even more substantial cuts in energy use. Or are we prepared to sacrifice our future to effects of Global Warming by using coal? - the North Norfolk Coal Field? – Aylsham Colliery, North Walsham Pit? Do we wish to reconsider our stance on renewables? Inaction or delays in decision making will lead us down the GAS option route and all the attendant Security issues that raises.
17 How many people know what 9 tonnes of CO 2 looks like? 5 hot air balloons per person per year. Around 4 million in the Diocese of Norwich. In the developing world, the average is under 1 balloon per person Is this Fair? On average each person in UK causes the emission of 9 tonnes of CO 2 each year. "Nobody made a greater mistake than he who did nothing because he thought he could do only a little." Edmund Burke (1727 – 1797)
18 Raising Awareness A tumble dryer uses 4 times as much energy as a washing machine. Using it 5 times a week will cost over £100 a year just for this appliance alone and emit over half a tonne of CO gms of carbon dioxide has an equivalent volume of 1 party balloon. Standby on electrical appliances 60+ kWh a year balloons. A Mobile Phone charger: up to 20 kWh per year ~ 1000 balloons each year. 10 kg CO 2 Filling up with petrol (~£38 for a full tank – 40 litres) kg of CO2 (5% of one hot air balloon) How far does one have to drive in a small family car (e.g cc Toyota Corolla) to emit as much carbon dioxide as heating an old persons room for 1 hour? 1.6 miles At Gaoan No 1 Primary School in Xuhui District, Shanghai
19 Saving Energy – A Practical Guide Ways to Reduce Your Carbon Footprint Micro Wind Micro CHP Heat Pumps
20 Involve the local Community The residents on the island of Burray (Orkney) campaigned for a wind turbine. On average they are more than self-sufficient in electricity needs and indeed are a net exporter of electricity. Many of the Islanders bought shares in the project and are now reaping the reward. Orkney is hoping to be a zero net emitter of carbon dioxide by Even better things are happening on the Island of Westray.
21 House in Lerwick, Shetland Isles with Solar Panels - less than 15,000 people live north of this in UK! It is all very well for South East, but what about the North? House on Westray, Orkney exploiting passive solar energy from end of February
22 Involve the local Community Even better things are happening on the Island of Westray. The Parish Kirk, and Community Centre are heated by heat Pumps partly powered by Wind Turbines Waste cooking oil from other islands is processed into biodiesel for farm and other vehicles. Ethanol used in process is obtained from fermentation of harvested sea weed
23 The Behavioural Dimension Household size has little impact on electricity consumption. Consumption varies by up to a factor of 9 for any given household size. Allowing for Income still shows a range of 6 or more. Education/Awareness is important
24 Target Day Results of the Big Switch-Off With a concerted effort savings of 25% or more are possible How can these be translated into long term savings?
26 Personal Attitudes to Energy Use can be significant
27 Social Awareness of Occupational Impact on Climate Change
28 Social Awareness of Occupational Impact on Climate Change
29 Hard Choices What can we as individuals do? What can you do collectively as a Church or Community? Visit the CRed WEB Site Sign a pledge to combat global warming help secure a sustainable environment for our children help reduce the adverse impacts of Global Warming help secure energy supplies for the future saving energy Adopting technical solutions Promoting Awareness Promoting appropriate renewable energy St Pauls Church, Tuckswood
31 Conclusions Global Warming will affect us all - in next few decades Energy Security will become increasingly important. Inaction over making difficult decisions now will make Energy Insecurity more likely in future. Move towards energy conservation and LOCAL generation of energy and small changes to behaviour. It is as much about the individuals response to use of energy as any technical measures the Government may take. Wind (and possibly biomass) are the only real alternatives for renewable generation in next 5 – 10 years. Otherwise Nuclear??? Even if we are not convinced about Global Warming – Energy Security issues will shortly start to affect us.
32 WEBSITE Cred-uk.org/ This presentation will be available from tomorrow at above WEB Site: follow Academic Links Need to act now otherwise we might have to make choice of whether we drive 1.6 miles or heat an old persons room Conclusions Are you up to the Challenge?: Will you make a pledge? Lao Tzu ( BC) Chinese Artist and Taoist philosopher "If you do not change direction, you may end up where you are heading."
33 Animation Courtesy of Rob Hannington
36 Wind Turbines are Incredibly Inefficient Efficiency: the ratio of the USEFUL work to the total energy available (or expended) Oxford English Dictionary Modern Wind Turbines convert 40 – 42% of available energy in the wind Modern Coal Fired Power Stations achieve 38% Sizewell B achieves 32% A car engine achieve % at best Compared to many other energy devices, Wind Turbines are Very Efficient
37 Have you got a hot water cylinder to supply hot water? If there is no cylinder – you will have a combi boiler unless the water is heated by electricity. You can have both condensing and non condensing boilers (either combi or not) To work out if you have a condensing boiler – have a look at the exhaust when the boiler is running. If there are clouds of water vapour coming from it then it is a condensing boiler. A condensing boiler will be 85 – 92% efficient A normal boiler will be only 65 – 75% efficient How can you tell if you have a condensing boiler
38 How can you tell if you have cavity walls? A solid wall A cavity wall With insulation