Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1 Recipient of James Watt Gold Medal Aylsham and District Wildlife Society November 28th 2011 The Triple Challenges of Climate Change, Energy Security.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "1 Recipient of James Watt Gold Medal Aylsham and District Wildlife Society November 28th 2011 The Triple Challenges of Climate Change, Energy Security."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Recipient of James Watt Gold Medal Aylsham and District Wildlife Society November 28th 2011 The Triple Challenges of Climate Change, Energy Security and Cost - a Route to a Sustainable Future' Keith Tovey ( ) M.A., PhD, CEng, MICE, CEnv Reader Emeritus: University of East Anglia

2 UK Businesses and Individuals are faced with three challenges associated with Energy Use: Increasing Evidence of Anthropogenic Climate Change – and consequential legislation Issues of Energy Security – particularly in UK The need to minimise cost exposures to price fluctuations in Energy These Challenges can be addressed by: Moving to Low Carbon Energy Supply Nuclear power ? Renewable Energy Generation Carbon Capture and Sequestration Employing Technical Solutions to improve efficiency of End-Use Energy. Promoting Effective Energy Management and Awareness among users. 2 The Triple Challenges of Climate Change, Energy Security and Cost of our Future Energy Supplies

3 Very Brief Resume of Climate Change Overview of Energy Demand Energy Security Issues – particularly for the UK Reducing Demand through Awareness and good Management Renewable Energy Options for a Sustainable Future Conclusions 3 Overview of the Key Issues

4 4 Increasing Occurrence of Drought 4

5 5 Increasing Occurrence of Flood 5

6 Climate Change: Changes in the Artic Summer ice coverage of Arctic Polar Region NASA satellite imagery الصيف الجليد في القطب الشمالي تغطية المنطقة القطبيه ناسا الصور الفضاءيه Source: Nasa 20% reduction in 24 years 20 ٪ تخفيض في 24 سنوات تغير المناخ اثار على الجليديه القطبيه كاب

7 Is Global Warming natural or man-made? Natural causes Earths Orbit Sunspot Activity Volcanic Eruptions Etc. Reasonable agreement up to ~ 1960 Man-made causes do not show particularly good agreement in early part of period. BUT including both man- made and natural gives good agreement 7

8 Global Surface Temperatures In 2010 we had one of the warmest ever January – February periods. Some people say surely it was coldest for 30 years But why do people not account for the record breaking high temperatures in the tropics, Australia etc? 5 th Warmest for January 8

9 Winter: October – March: Summer: April to September Compared to 1960 – in 2010, – 13.1% less heating needed – And 106% more cooling. Temperature variations in East Anglia Temperature rise in East Anglia over last 50 years is unequivocal 2010 was one a particularly warm year despite cold spells in Europe in January and December NASA says it tied as being warmest _Warmest_Year.htm 9

10 10 Per capita Carbon Emissions UK How does UK compare with other countries? Why do some countries emit more CO 2 than others? What is the magnitude of the CO 2 problem? France 10

11 Approximate Carbon Emission factors during electricity generation including fuel extraction, fabrication and transport. 11 Impact of Electricity Generation on Carbon Emissions. FuelApproximate emission factor per kWh Comments Coal~900 – 1000gDepending on grade and efficiency of power station Oil~ Depending on grade and efficiency of power station Gas (Steam)~600g Gas (CCGT)400 – 430gAssuming CCGT – lower value for Yarmouth Nuclear5 – 10gDepending on reactor type Renewables~ 0For wind, PV, hydro Transmission/Distribution losses in UK ~ 8-8.5% In India ~ 20 – 25%

12 12 Carbon Emissions and Electricity UK France 12

13 r 13 Electricity Generation i n selected Countries 13

14 14 Import Gap Energy Security is a potentially critical issue for the UK On 7 th /8 th December 2010: UK Production was only 39%: 12% from storage and 49% from imports Gas Production and Demand in UK

15 15 Energy Security is a potentially critical issue for the UK Prices have become much more volatile since UK is no longer self sufficient in gas. UK becomes net importer of gas Completion of Langeled Gas Line to Norway Oil reaches $140 a barrel Wholesale Electricity Price surge in January and December 2010 when Gas imports are high during cold spells.

16 In recent years, electricity retail prices have varied much less than wholesale prices and have also risen less. 16 Variation in Wholesale and Retail Electricity Prices In Real Terms, Domestic Electricity Prices have only recently returned to 1981 levels Nov 2011

17 17 Gas Dependency in UK Data Values are millions of cubic metres per day flow rate UK Production 40.0% of Demand UK Production 52.8% of Demand

18 Carbon sequestration either by burying it or using methanolisation to create a new transport fuel will not be available at scale required until mid 2020s so cannot help short term. 18 Options for Electricity Generation in Non-Renewable Methods Potential contribution to electricity supply in 2020 and drivers/barriers/costs Energy Review 2002 New Predictions 9th May 2011 (*) Gas CCGT % (at present %) Available now (but gas is running out – imported prices much higher) ~2p + 8.0p [5 - 11] nuclear fission (long term) % (France 80%) - (currently 18% and falling) new inherently safe designs - some development needed p 7.75p [ ] nuclear fusionunavailable not available until 2040 at earliest not until 2050 for significant impact "Clean Coal" Coal currently ~40% but scheduled to fall Available now: Not viable without Carbon Capture & Sequestration p [ ]p - unlikely before 2025 * Energy Review 2011 – Climate Change Committee May 2011 Nuclear New Build assumes one new station is completed each year after ? Plans for the UK's first carbon capture project at the Longannet power station in Fife costing £1bn have been scrapped, the energy secretary has confirmed. 19 October 2011 Last updated at 16:35 Longannet carbon capture scheme scrapped

19 19 Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable Future prices from * Renewable Energy Review – 9 th May 2011 Climate Change Committee 1.5MW Turbine At peak output provides sufficient electricity for 3000 homes On average has provided electricity for 700 – 850 homes depending on year ~8.2p +/- 0.8p Potential contribution to electricity supply in 2020 and drivers/barriers 2002 (Gas ~ 2p) Predictions May 2011 (Gas ~ 8.0p) * On Shore Wind ~25% [~15000 x 3 MW turbines] available now for commercial exploitation ~ 2+p

20 20 Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable ~8.2p +/- 0.8p Potential contribution to electricity supply in 2020 and drivers/barriers 2002 (Gas ~ 2p) Predictions May 2011 (Gas ~ 8.0p) * On Shore Wind ~25% [~15000 x 3 MW turbines] available now for commercial exploitation ~ 2+p Scroby Sands has a Load factor of 28.8% - 30% but nevertheless produced sufficient electricity on average for 2/3rds of demand of houses in Norwich. At Peak time sufficient for all houses in Norwich and Ipswich Climate Change Committee (9 th May 2011) see offshore wind as being very expensive and recommends reducing planned expansion by 3 GW and increasing onshore wind by same amount Off Shore Wind % some technical development needed to reduce costs. ~ p 12.5p +/- 2.5

21 21 Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable ~8.2p +/- 0.8p Potential contribution to electricity supply in 2020 and drivers/barriers 2002 (Gas ~ 2p) Predictions May 2011 (Gas ~ 8.0p) * On Shore Wind ~25% [~15000 x 3 MW turbines] available now for commercial exploitation ~ 2+p Off Shore Wind % some technical development needed to reduce costs. ~ p 12.5p +/- 2.5 Micro Hydro Scheme operating on Siphon Principle installed at Itteringham Mill, Norfolk. Rated capacity 5.5 kW Future prices from Climate Change Report (May 2011) or RO/FITs where not otherwise specified Hydro (mini - micro) 5% technically mature, but limited potential p 11p for <2MW projects

22 22 Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable ~8.2p +/- 0.8p Potential contribution to electricity supply in 2020 and drivers/barriers 2002 (Gas ~ 2p) Predictions May 2011 (Gas ~ 8.0p) * On Shore Wind ~25% [~15000 x 3 MW turbines] available now for commercial exploitation ~ 2+p Off Shore Wind % some technical development needed to reduce costs. ~ p 12.5p +/- 2.5 Future prices from Climate Change Report (May 2011) or RO/FITs where not otherwise specified Hydro (mini - micro) 5% technically mature, but limited potential p 11p for <2MW projects Climate Change Report suggests that 1.6 TWh (0.4%) might be achieved by 2020 which is equivalent to ~ 2.0 GW. Photovoltaic <<5% even assuming 10 GW of installation available, but much further research needed to bring down costs significantly 15+ p 25p +/-8

23 23 Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable ~8.2p +/- 0.8p Potential contribution to electricity supply in 2020 and drivers/barriers 2002 (Gas ~ 2p) Predictions May 2011 (Gas ~ 8.0p) * On Shore Wind ~25% [~15000 x 3 MW turbines] available now for commercial exploitation ~ 2+p Off Shore Wind % some technical development needed to reduce costs. ~ p 12.5p +/- 2.5 Future prices from Climate Change Report (May 2011) or RO/FITs where not otherwise specified Hydro (mini - micro) 5% technically mature, but limited potential p 11p for <2MW projects Photovoltaic <<5% even assuming 10 GW of installation available, but much further research needed to bring down costs significantly 15+ p 25p +/-8 To provide 5% of UK electricity needs will require an area the size of Norfolk and Suffolk devoted solely to biomass Sewage, Landfill, Energy Crops/ Biomass/Biogas ??5% available, but research needed in some areas e.g. advanced gasification p p depending on technology Transport Fuels: Biodiesel? Bioethanol? Compressed gas from methane from waste.

24 24 Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable Future prices from Climate Change Report (May 2011) or RO/FITs where not otherwise specified Potential contribution to electricity supply in 2020 and drivers/barriers 2002 (Gas ~ 2p) Predictions May 2011 (Gas ~ 8.0p) On Shore Wind~25% available now ~ 2+p ~8.2p +/- 0.8p Off Shore Wind % available but costly ~ p12.5p +/- 2.5 Small Hydro5% limited potential p 11p for <2MW projects Photovoltaic<<5% available, but very costly 15+ p25p +/-8 Biomass??5% available, but research needed p7 - 13p Wave/Tidal Stream currently < 10 MW may be MW (~0.1%) technology limited - major development not before p 19p +/- 6 Tidal 26.5p +/- 7.5p Wave

25 25 Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable Future prices from Climate Change Report (May 2011) or RO/FITs where not otherwise specified Potential contribution to electricity supply in 2020 and drivers/barriers 2002 (Gas ~ 2p) Predictions May 2011 (Gas ~ 8.0p) On Shore Wind~25% available now ~ 2+p ~8.2p +/- 0.8p Off Shore Wind % available but costly ~ p12.5p +/- 2.5 Small Hydro5% limited potential p 11p for <2MW projects Photovoltaic<<5% available, but very costly 15+ p25p +/-8 Biomass??5% available, but research needed p7 - 13p Wave/Tidal Stream currently < 10 MW may be MW (~0.1%) techology limited - major development not before p 19p +/- 6 Tidal 26.5p +/- 7.5p Wave

26 26 Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable Future prices from Climate Change Report (May 2011) or RO/FITs where not otherwise specified Potential contribution to electricity supply in 2020 and drivers/barriers 2002 (Gas ~ 2p) Predictions May 2011 (Gas ~ 8.0p) On Shore Wind~25% available now ~ 2+p ~8.2p +/- 0.8p Off Shore Wind % available but costly ~ p12.5p +/- 2.5 Small Hydro5% limited potential p 11p for <2MW projects Photovoltaic<<5% available, but very costly 15+ p25p +/-8 Biomass??5% available, but research needed p7 - 13p Wave/Tidal Stream currently < 10 MW may be MW (~0.1%) technology limited - major development not before p 19p +/- 6 Tidal 26.5p +/- 7.5p Wave Severn Barrage/ Mersey Barrages have been considered frequently e.g. pre war – 1970s, 2009 Severn Barrage could provide 5-8% of UK electricity needs In Orkney – Churchill Barriers Output ~ GWh per annum - Sufficient for houses in Orkney but there are only 4000 in Orkney. Controversy in bringing cables south. Would save tonnes of CO 2 Tidal Barrages5 - 15% technology available but unlikely for Construction time ~10 years. In 2010 Government abandoned plans for development 26p +/-5

27 27 Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable Future prices from Climate Change Report (May 2011) or RO/FITs where not otherwise specified Potential contribution to electricity supply in 2020 and drivers/barriers 2002 (Gas ~ 2p) Predictions May 2011 (Gas ~ 8.0p) On Shore Wind ~25% available now ~ 2+p ~8.2p +/- 0.8p Off Shore Wind % available but costly ~ p12.5p +/- 2.5 Small Hydro5% limited potential p 11p for <2MW Photovoltaic<<5% available, but very costly 15+ p25p +/-8 Biomass??5% available, but research needed p7 - 13p Wave/Tidal Stream currently < 10 MW ?? MW (~0.1%) technology limited - major development not before p 19p Tidal 26.5p Wave Tidal Barrages5 - 15% In 2010 Government abandoned plans for development 26p +/-5 Geothermal unlikely for electricity generation before 2050 if then -not to be confused with ground sourced heat pumps which consume electricity

28 28 Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable Future prices from Climate Change Report (May 2011) or RO/FITs where not otherwise specified Potential contribution to electricity supply in 2020 and drivers/barriers 2002 (Gas ~ 2p) Predictions May 2011 (Gas ~ 8.0p) On Shore Wind~25%available now ~ 2+p ~8.2p +/- 0.8p Off Shore Wind % available but costly ~ p12.5p +/- 2.5 Small Hydro5% limited potential p 11p for <2MW Photovoltaic<<5% available, but very costly 15+ p25p +/-8 Biomass??5% available, but research needed p7 - 13p Wave/Tidal Stream currently < 10 MW ?? MW (~0.1%) technology limited - major development not before p 19p Tidal 26.5p Wave Tidal Barrages5 - 15% In 2010 Government abandoned plans for development 26p +/-5 Geothermal unlikely for electricity generation before 2050 if then -not to be confused with ground sourced heat pumps which consume electricity Demonstrates importance of on shore wind for next decade or so

29 29 Do we want to exploit available renewables i.e onshore/offshore wind and biomass?. Photovoltaics, tidal, wave are not options for next years. [very expensive or technically immature or both] If our answer is NO Do we want to see a renewal of nuclear power ? Are we happy with this and the other attendant risks? If our answer is NO Do we want to return to using coal? then carbon dioxide emissions will rise significantly unless we can develop carbon sequestration within 10 years UNLIKELY – confirmed by Climate Change Committee [9 th May 2011] If our answer to coal is NO Do we want to leave things are they are and see continued exploitation of gas for both heating and electricity generation? >>>>>> Our Choices: They are difficult

30 30 Our Choices: They are difficult If our answer is YES By 2020 we will be dependent on GAS for around 70% of our heating and electricity imported from countries like Russia, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Algeria Are we happy with this prospect? >>>>>> If not: We need even more substantial cuts in energy use. Or are we prepared to sacrifice our future to effects of Global Warming? - the North Norfolk Coal Field? Do we wish to reconsider our stance on renewables? Inaction or delays in decision making will lead us down the GAS option route and all the attendant Security issues that raises. We must take a coherent integrated approach in our decision making – not merely be against one technology or another

31 Existing Nuclear Existing Coal Oil UK Gas Imported Gas New Nuclear New Coal Other Renewables Offshore Wind Onshore Wind 1 new nuclear station completed each year after new coal station fitted with CCS each year after million homes fitted with PV each year from % of homes fitted by GW of onshore wind by 2030 cf 4 GW now Data for modelling derived from DECC & Climate Change Committee (2011) - allowing for significant deployment of electric vehicles and heat pumps by Our looming over-dependence on gas for electricity generation 31

32 32 How many people know what 9 tonnes of CO 2 looks like? 5 hot air balloons per person per year. On average each person in UK causes the emission of 9 tonnes of CO 2 each year. "Nobody made a greater mistake than he who did nothing because he thought he could do only a little." Edmund Burke (1727 – 1797) Raising Awareness

33 33 Raising Awareness A Toyota Corolla (1400cc): 1 party balloon every 60m. 10 gms of carbon dioxide has an equivalent volume of 1 party balloon. Standby on electrical appliances up to kWh a year balloons. (up to £15 a year) A Mobile Phone charger: > 10 kWh per year ~ 500 balloons each year. Filling up with petrol (~£50 for a full tank – 40 litres) kg of CO2 (5% of one hot air balloon) How far does one have to drive in a small family car (e.g cc Toyota Corolla) to emit as much carbon dioxide as heating an old persons room for 1 hour? 1.6 miles At Gaoan No 1 Primary School in Xuhui District, Shanghai A tumble dryer uses 4 times as much energy as a washing machine. Using it 5 times a week will cost ~ £100 a year just for this appliance alone and emit over half a tonne of CO 2. School children at the Al Fatah University, Tripoli, Libya

34 34 The Behavioural Dimension: Awareness raising Social Attitudes towards energy consumption have a profound effect on actual consumption Data collected from 114 houses in Norwich between mid November 2006 and mid March 2007 For a given size of household electricity consumption for appliances [NOT HEATING or HOT WATER] can vary by as much as 9 times. When income levels are accounted for, variation is still 6 times 34

35 Electricity Consumption in an Office Building in East Anglia Consumption rose to nearly double level of early Malfunction of Air-conditioning plant. Extra fuel cost £ per annum ~£1000 to repair fault Additional CO 2 emitted ~ 100 tonnes. Low Energy Lighting Installed 35

36 kWh% costRank% Renewables Norwich3,53579%6 0.0% Ipswich4,34997% % Waveney4,41799% % Broadland4,618103% % Great Yarmouth4,699105% % St Edmundsbury4,869109% % Breckland5,028112% % Forest Heath5,174116% % Babergh5,252117% % South Norfolk5,347119% % Suffolk Coastal5,371120% % North Norfolk5,641126% % Mid Suffolk5,723128% % King's Lynn and West Norfolk5,731128% % UK Average4478 % of average cost of electricity bills compared to National Average Rank position in UK out of 408 Local Authorities Average house in Norwich emits 1.87 tonnes of CO 2 from electricity consumption in Kings Lynn 3.04 tonnes of CO 2 (based on UK emission factors) Average household electricity bill in Norwich is 64% that in Kings Lynn Average Domestic Electricity Consumption in Norfolk and Suffolk 36

37 Electricity Supply in Norfolk and Suffolk (GWh) Data for Renewables and Sizewe ll Other Data based on typical load factors Existing Renewables Sizewell B Great Yarmouth Total generation in Norfolk and Suffolk (allowing for losses) ~ GWh Total demand in Norfolk and Suffolk = 7803 GWh Net export to remainder of UK ~ 3200 GWh At £12.50 per tonne (EU-ETS price), this represents a benefit of £18 million to rest of UK in carbon saved. Export of Electricity to rest of UK

38 38 Sustainable Options for the future? Energy Generation Solar thermal - providing hot water - most suitable for domestic installations, hotels – generally lees suitable for other businesses Solar PV – providing electricity - suitable for all sizes of installation Example 2 panel ( 2.6 sqm ) in Norwich – generates 826kWh/year (average over 7 years). The more hot water you use the more solar heat you get! Renewable Heat Incentive available from 2012 Area required for 1 kW peak varies from ~ 5.5 to 8.5 sqm depending on technology and manufacturer Approximate annual estimate of generation = installed capacity * 8760 * hours in year load/capacity factor of 9.5%

39 39 Annual Solar Gain 826 kWh Solar Collectors installed 27th January 2004 Members of community agreed to purchase Solar Panels at same time. Significantly reduced costs Sustainable Options for the future?

40 Getting the most out of Solar Thermal: Tank with small residual hot water at top of tank in early morning If Central Heating boiler heats up water – less opportunity for solar heating. Zone heated by solar energy 40 Solar Thermal Energy captured when combined with central heating

41 Tank with small residual hot water at top of tank in early morning No hot water provided by central heating boiler. Gain from solar energy is much higher. More solar energy can be gained if boiler operation is delayed. Boiler ON/OFF times should be adjusted between summer and winter for optimum performance 41 Getting the most out of Solar Thermal:

42 Solar Rosette Diagram for East Norfolk/Suffolk Tilt N NE E SE S SW W NW N Azimuth < Note: Optimum direction for solar energy in East Anglia is NOT due south but ~ degrees West of South. Reduction for west facing roof is < 20% For solar thermal a more westerly orientation is often preferable, but depends on hot water use during day

43 43 Energy Source Scale Installation date Duratio n (years) 01/04/10 – 31/03/12 Post Aug 1 st 2011 > 01/04/2012 Payments To 31/03/11 From 01/04/11 Ofgem – Aug 2011 Reduced tariffs in later years Solar PV4 kW new Solar PV4 kW retrofit Solar PV>4-10kW Solar PV> kW Solar PV>50-150kW Solar PV> kW Solar PV>250kW - 5MW Solar PVStandalone Wind1.5kW Wind> kW Wind> kW Wind> kW Wind>500kW - 1.5MW Wind>1.5MW - 5MW Existing generators transferred from RO 99.4 to 2027 Export Tariff33.1 Feed in Tariffs – Introduced 1 st April 2010 Tariffs are index linked each year for existing generators only new generators are affected by revised prices which have still to be confirmed. Tariffs also available for hydro, anerobic digestion and mini CHP. Drastic Changes announced on Monday 31 st October 2011!! - see DECC Consultation linked from WEBSITE Consultation runs to 23 rd December 2011 but with suggested implementation date of December 12 th 2011!!!!!!!!!.

44 44 Technology Domestic Industrial & Commercial CommunityTotal Installations Number Installed Capacity Number Installed Capacity Number Installed Capacity Number Installed Capacity MW NORFOLK Anaerobic Digestion Hydro Micro CHP Photovoltaic Wind Installed Capacity Total Installations SUFFOLK Micro CHP Photovoltaic Wind Total Installed Capacity (MW) Total Installations Installations under Feed In Tariff Scheme ( to 25/11/2011) The annual output from all PVschemes installed is ~ 11.5 GWh – the same output as < 3 turbines such as those at North Pickenham. All schemes are equivalent to just over 4 such turbines.

45 Tariff name Eligible technology Eligible sizes Tariff rate (pence/ kWh) Tariff duration (Years) Small biomass Solid biomass; Municipal Solid Waste (incl. CHP) < 200 kWth Tier 1: Tier 2: 1.9 Medium biomass 200 kWth to 1,000 kWth Tier 1: 4.7 Tier 2: 1.9 >1,000 kWth 2.6 Large biomass Small ground source Ground & Water - source heat pumps; deep geothermal <100 kWth Large ground source >100 kWth 3 Solar thermal <200 kWth Biomethane injection and combustion except from landfill gas – all scales < 200 kWth Renewable Heat Incentive from 01/10/11 for Non-Domestic Installations Tier 1 applies annually up to the Tier Break, Tier 2 above the Tier Break. The Tier Break is: installed capacity x 1,314 peak load hours, i.e.: kWth x 1,314 All Houses – voucher valid for 3 months Houses not heated by gas from Gas Grid Vouchers valid for 6 months £300 – solar thermal voucher£950 biomass boiler voucher £850 air source heat pump valid for 6 months £1250 ground or water source heat pump voucher 45 Stop Press!!! 18:00 on 29 th September 2011 The EU have rejected support level for large Biomass and scheme cannot now start until amendments to RHI Order are in place. Temporary Grants for Domestic Installations – implementation 01/10/12

46 46 X-axis shows 30 minute periods from midnight on 23/24 th September How Variable is Wind Energy? Wind Energy is often cited as being not predictable. Data for th February 2011 from Over 3.7 GW is now visible to National Grid out of 5.4GW. Predictions are made 48hr and 24 hrs in advance Generally good correlation with 24hr forecast

47 Data from BMREPORTS for 2010 Changes in output over 30 minute period Wind Max: 914 MW Min: – 1051 MW StDev : 37.8 MW Nuclear Max: 1630 MW Min: MW StDev: 39.9MW How Variable is Wind Energy? Data for Sun/Mon 25/26 Sep

48 48 Options available for the Householder Energy Generation Micro Wind - roof mounted turbines Mini Wind - mast mounted turbines – can be good as long as well clear of buildings, trees, etc – can be a good option for farms Building Mounted - ~ 1kW machines ~ generally poor performance because of turbulence except in a few locations Not generally recommended Mast mounted away from buildings - 6kW Potential output 6000 – kWh depending on location Vertical Axis machine – better in turbulence

49 49 Alternative Strategies for Financing Consumer purchases system and benefits from both reduction in imported electricity and Feed In Tariff – suitable for both domestic and commercial properties for those who are capital rich but income poor. Company pays for and installs system and claims the Feed In Tariff – the owner of land benefits from reduced energy bills – for those with limited capital and less concerned with income. Schemes exist for small wind – e.g. Windcrop who offer 5kW turbines which are less affected by planning issues Domestic/community PV up to 50kW Images courtesy of WindCrop Honningham Thorpe, Norfolk

50 50 Options available for the Householder Energy Generation Onshore Wind - sensible for community schemes – e.g. Orkney, Germany, Denmark etc – the cheapest form of renewable energy Biomass boilers - can be sensible but need a reliable fuel supply. In cost terms with the proposed Renewable Heat Incentive there are attractions for homes heated by oil or electricity but not, at present, mains gas. Most convenient if running on pellets Cheaper with wood chip but more difficult to automate

51 51 Ground Source: Heat Pumps Typically twice floor area of house is required for heat collection. Best performance with under floor heating – i.e difference between heat supply and source temperature is as low as possible Zones of house can be controlled via a manifold Options available for the Householder – Heat Pumps

52 52 Heat pumps run off electricity For a well designed ground source heat pump system: Typically 3.5 – 4.5 as much heat is produced as electricity consumed – the Coefficient of Performance (COP). If a buffer tank is included in system, then off peak electricity can be used to heat store overnight – minimising use of full rate electricity. Air source heat pumps require external fan system, and are not as efficient as air temperature is low when most heat is needed. Retro fitting with existing radiators will lead to poor COP, but could be improved by fitting double radiators and/or a buffer tank Options available for the Householder – Heat Pumps

53 53 Micro CHP Replaces normal boiler Provides heat and electricity – would normally run on gas Currently there are incentives under the Feed In Tariff. Options available for the Householder – CHP To be eligible to claim for any Incentive the installation must be installed by a registered MCS installer. Certificate of installation must be presented at time of registration. All Installations must be MCS Accredited

54 54 Seeking Effective Low Carbon Solutions for Energy Supply Some costs for providing a low carbon future Small scale solar PV under the Feed in Tariff ~ £740+ per tonne CO 2 saved Large Scale On-shore wind under Renewable obligation ~ £90+ per tonne CO 2 saved Cavity Insulation ~ <£20 per tonne CO 2 saved – but this does not provide electricity Effective Energy Management can often be cost negative in terms of CO 2 saved. – Wholesale cost of electricity ~ 5p per kWh – Cost of solar PV electricity 44.3p/kWh: – onshore wind ~ 10p/kWh: – offshore wind ~ 15p kWh An effective low carbon strategy will focus on most cost effective solutions.

55 55 What is main cause of the Current Rise in Energy Bills? For 25 years from 1980 electricity prices fell in real terms to 2/3rds of 1981 level and have only recently exceeded historic levels. Consumers are paying for these increases What is impact of Renewables on price rises. Large Scale Renewables (e.g. onshore wind market) is adding around £1.3billion pounds a year to electricity bills representing around % ~ risen to this level over last 9.5 years. Recent rises in electricity have been 10 – 18% over last few months compounded on previous rises – arising from volatility of imported gas. Feed in tariffs (solar) are increasing cost of each unit generated by nearly 900%, but levels of generation are very low at present but will cost around £35 - £40 per household extra over period to 2015.

56 billion people 0.94 billion people Raw materials 1.03 billion people Products : 478 Mtonnes CO 2 increase in 3 years Aid & Education The Unbalanced Triangular Trade Each person in Developed Countries has been responsible for an extra 463 kg of CO 2 emissions in goods imported from China in just 3 years Water issues are equally important. Each tonne of steel imported from a developing country consumes ~ tonnes of water Ethical Issues

57 Conclusions Global Warming will affect us all - in next few decades Energy Security will become increasingly important, particularly in the UK. Energy costs are rising mostly from increasing scarcity of traditional fossil fuels Inaction over making difficult decisions now will make Energy Insecurity and cost increases more likely in future. Move towards energy conservation and LOCAL generation of renewable energy and small changes in behaviour It is as much about the individuals response to use of energy as any technical measures the Government may take. 57 Lao Tzu ( BC) Chinese Artist and Taoist philosopher "If you do not change direction, you may end up where you are heading." WEBSITE This presentation will be available from tomorrow at above WEB Site: follow Academic Links


Download ppt "1 Recipient of James Watt Gold Medal Aylsham and District Wildlife Society November 28th 2011 The Triple Challenges of Climate Change, Energy Security."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google