Presentation on theme: "CRed Carbon Reduction 1 Keith Tovey ( ) Н.К.Тови M.A., PhD, CEng, MICE, CEnv Energy Science Director: Low Carbon Innovation Centre School of Environmental."— Presentation transcript:
CRed Carbon Reduction 1 Keith Tovey ( ) Н.К.Тови M.A., PhD, CEng, MICE, CEnv Energy Science Director: Low Carbon Innovation Centre School of Environmental Sciences, UEA. Rotary Club of Norwich Rotary Club of Corby Annual Lecture 5 th November 2009 The Path to a Sustainable Low Carbon Future for our Children: The Hard Choices Facing Us Recipient of James Watt Gold Medal
CRed Carbon Reduction How much Energy is there in different fuels? Understanding Energy MegaJoulesYogurtskWh Yogurt85000 calories (85kcal) cubic meter gas litre petrol litre diesel litre LPG litre heating oil
CRed Carbon Reduction 3 Increasing Occurrence of Drought
CRed Carbon Reduction 4 Increasing Occurrence of DroughtIncreasing Occurrence of Flood
CRed Carbon Reduction 5 (Source: Prof. Bill McGuire, University College London) Norwich Consequence of ~ 1m rise Consequence of ~ 6m rise Norwich City would be playing water polo!
CRed Carbon Reduction Climate Change: Arctic meltdown Summer ice coverage of Arctic Polar Region NASA satellite imagery الصيف الجليد في القطب الشمالي تغطية المنطقة القطبيه ناسا الصور الفضاءيه Source: Nasa 20% reduction in 24 years 20 ٪ تخفيض في 24 سنوات تغير المناخ اثار على الجليديه القطبيه كاب
CRed Carbon Reduction 7 Our Choices: They are difficult: Energy Security Import Gap
CRed Carbon Reduction 8 How is electricity generated
CRed Carbon Reduction 9 Electricity Generation in the UK Each unit of electricity used causes the emission of 540 gms in UK but only 70gms in France. 42% efficient in UK Power Station Coal 37.7% Gas 35.5% Oil 1.3% Other 2.0% Renewable 4.7% Nuclear 18.9% Losses 8.5% Emissions depends on efficiency, losses and fuel Coal ~ 1000 gms Oil ~ 900 gms Gas ~ 400 gms Nuclear ~ 20gms
CRed Carbon Reduction 10 Options for Electricity Generation in Non-Renewable Methods Gas CCGT % (curently 35%) Available now (but is now running out) ~2p + but recent trends put figure much higher UK becomes net importer of gas in 2004 Langeland and Balzand Pipe Lines completed Price projected by Government for Gas generation in
CRed Carbon Reduction 11 Options for Electricity Generation in Non-Renewable Methods Nuclear New Build assumes one new station is completed each year after Gas CCGT % (curently 35%) Available now (but is now running out) ~2p + but recent trends put figure much higher Carbon sequestration either by burying it or use methanolisation as a new transport fuel will not be available at scale required until mid 2020s 11
CRed Carbon Reduction 12 Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable
CRed Carbon Reduction 13 Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable Scroby Sands had a Load factor of 25.8% but nevertheless produced sufficient electricity on average for 60% needs of houses in Norwich. At Peak time sufficient for all houses in Norwich and Ipswich
CRed Carbon Reduction 14 Micro Hydro Scheme operating on Siphon Principle installed at Itteringham Mill, Norfolk. Rated capacity 5.5 kW Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable
CRed Carbon Reduction 15 Area required to supply 5% of UK electricity needs ~ 400 sq km - But energy needed to make PV takes up to 10 years to pay back in UK. Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable
CRed Carbon Reduction 16 Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable But Land Area required is very large - the area of Norfolk and Suffolk would be needed to generate just over 5% of UK electricity needs. Transport Fuels: Biodiesel? Bioethanol? Compressed gas from methane from waste.
CRed Carbon Reduction 17 Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable
CRed Carbon Reduction 18 Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable
CRed Carbon Reduction 19 Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable Output GWh per annum - Sufficient for houses in Orkney but there are only 4000 in Orkney. Controversy in bringing cables south Save tonnes of CO 2
CRed Carbon Reduction 20 Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable
CRed Carbon Reduction There is a looming capacity shortfall Even with a full deployment of renewables. A 10% reduction in demand per house will see a rise of 7% in total demand - Increased population decreased household size Our Choices: They are difficult: Energy Security
CRed Carbon Reduction 22 Do we want to exploit available renewables i.e onshore/offshore wind and biomass?. Photovoltaics, tidal, wave are not options for next 20 years. If our answer is NO Do we want to see a renewal of nuclear power ? Are we happy on this and the other attendant risks? If our answer is NO Do we want to return to using coal? then carbon dioxide emissions will rise significantly unless we can develop carbon sequestration within 10 years UNLIKELY If our answer to coal is NO Do we want to leave things are they are and see continued exploitation of gas for both heating and electricity generation? >>>>>> Our Choices: They are difficult
CRed Carbon Reduction 23 Our Choices: They are difficult If our answer is YES By 2020 we will be dependent on GAS for around 70% of our heating and electricity imported from countries like Russia, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Algeria Are we happy with this prospect? >>>>>> If not: We need even more substantial cuts in energy use. Or are we prepared to sacrifice our future to effects of Global Warming? - the North Norfolk Coal Field? Do we wish to reconsider our stance on renewables? Inaction or delays in decision making will lead us down the GAS option route and all the attendant Security issues that raises.
CRed Carbon Reduction 24 How many people know what 9 tonnes of CO 2 looks like? 5 hot air balloons per person per year. On average each person in UK causes the emission of 9 tonnes of CO 2 each year. "Nobody made a greater mistake than he who did nothing because he thought he could do only a little." Edmund Burke (1727 – 1797)
CRed Carbon Reduction 25 Raising Awareness A Toyota Corolla (1400cc): 1 party balloon every 60m. 10 gms of carbon dioxide has an equivalent volume of 1 party balloon. Standby on electrical appliances up to kWh a year balloons. (up to £15 a year) A Mobile Phone charger: > 10 kWh per year ~ 500 balloons each year. Filling up with petrol (~£38 for a full tank – 40 litres) kg of CO2 (5% of one hot air balloon) How far does one have to drive in a small family car (e.g cc Toyota Corolla) to emit as much carbon dioxide as heating an old persons room for 1 hour? 1.6 miles At Gaoan No 1 Primary School in Xuhui District, Shanghai A tumble dryer uses 4 times as much energy as a washing machine. Using it 5 times a week will cost ~ £100 a year just for this appliance alone and emit over half a tonne of CO 2. School children at the Al Fatah University, Tripoli, Libya
CRed Carbon Reduction 26 The Behavioural Dimension Social Attitudes towards energy consumption have a profound effect on actual consumption Data collected from 114 houses in Norwich For a given size of household electricity consumption for appliances [NOT HEATING or HOT WATER] can vary by as much as 9 times. When income levels are accounted for, variation is still 6 times
CRed Carbon Reduction 27 Involve the local Community -The BroadSol Project Annual Solar Gain 910 kWh Solar Collectors installed 27th January 2004 Members of community agreed to purchase Solar Panels at same time. Significantly reduced costs
CRed Carbon Reduction 28 House in Lerwick, Shetland Isles with Solar Panels - less than 15,000 people live north of this in UK! It is all very well for South East, but what about the North? House on Westray, Orkney exploiting passive solar energy from end of February
CRed Carbon Reduction 29 Ways to Respond to the Challenge: Technical Solutions: Solar Photovoltaic Photovoltaic cells are still expensive, but integration of ideas is needed. Output depends on type but varies from ~70kWh to ~100kWh per square meter per year. Average house in Norwich consumes ~ 3779 kWh per year [14 th /408], in Eaton Rise District of Norwich ~ 3000 kWh West Norfolk, 6082 kWh [391 st /408] per year
CRed Carbon Reduction 30 Responding to the Challenge: Technical Solutions: The Heat Pump Any low grade source of heat may be used Coils buried in garden 1 – 1.5 m deep Bore holes Lakes/Rivers are ideal Air can be used but is not as good Best performance if the temperature source between outside source and inside sink is as small as possible. Heat pump delivers 3, 4, or even 5 times as much heat as electricity put in.
CRed Carbon Reduction 31 6 kW Proven Turbine powering a Heat Pump providing heating for Parish Kirk, Westray Horizontal Axis Mini Wind In 2007/8, mini wind turbines had a load factor of ~ 10.5% on average >>> annual output of approximately 5500 kWh/annum
CRed Carbon Reduction 32 Involve the local Community The residents on the island of Burray (Orkney) campaigned for a wind turbine. On average they are more than self-sufficient in electricity needs and indeed are a net exporter of electricity. Many of the Islanders bought shares in the project and are now reaping the reward. Orkney is hoping to be a zero net emitter of carbon dioxide by 2015.
CRed Carbon Reduction A Pathway to a Low Carbon Future 1. Awareness 3. Renewable Energy 4. Offsetting 2. Technical Solutions
CRed Carbon Reduction What can you do in your school What can you do at home Where are the biggest savings in Energy and carbon emissions? Energy Security issues will be just as important as Carbon reduction in the UK and will increasingly affect us all in next 10 years Global warming will increasingly affect our fellow citizens of the planet in the developing world in the next 10 years Addressing Energy Security by taking small steps now will also help with Global Warming Otherwise we may have to choose whether we drive 1.6 miles or heat our home. What can we do? Lao Tzu ( BC) Chinese Artist and Taoist philosopher BC If you do not change direction, you may end up where you are heading. WEBSITE This presentation will be on WEB from tomorrow >follow Academic Resources Link
CRed Carbon Reduction Temperature Rise ( o C) Temperature Rise ( o C) Temperature Rise ( o C) Source: Hadley Centre, The Met.Office actual predicted Is Global Warming man made? Prediction: Anthropogenic only Not a good match between 1920 and 1970 Prediction: Natural only good match until 1960 Prediction: Natural and Anthropogenic Generally a good match Predictions include: Greenhouse Gas emissions Sulphates and ozone Solar and volcanic activity