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Carbon Reduction Strategies at the University of East Anglia CRed Carbon Reduction Rotary Club of Koblenz Ehrenbreitstein 10 th May 2013 N.K. Tovey ( )

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Presentation on theme: "Carbon Reduction Strategies at the University of East Anglia CRed Carbon Reduction Rotary Club of Koblenz Ehrenbreitstein 10 th May 2013 N.K. Tovey ( )"— Presentation transcript:

1 Carbon Reduction Strategies at the University of East Anglia CRed Carbon Reduction Rotary Club of Koblenz Ehrenbreitstein 10 th May 2013 N.K. Tovey ( ) M.A, PhD, CEng, MICE, CEnv Н.К.Тови М.А., д-р технических наук Norwich Business School Past President RC Norwich: District 1080 Environment Officer District 1080 ComVoc Chair Recipient of James Watt Gold Medal 2007

2 Welcome to the University of East Anglia School of Environmental Sciences A 5** Research department Rated in top 5 Environmental Sciences Department in world Rated Excellent in Teaching Many World Renowned Centres –Tyndall Centre, Climate Research Unit –CRed – Carbon Reduction Project –Zuckerman Institute for Connective Environmental Research (ZICER)

3 3 Original buildings Teaching wall Library Student residences

4 Nelson Court Constable Terrace

5 5 Low Energy Educational Buildings Elizabeth Fry Building ZICER Nursing and Midwifery School Medical School 5 Medical School Phase 2 Thomas Paine Study Centre

6 6 The Elizabeth Fry Building Cost 6% more but has heating requirement ~25% of average building at time. Building Regulations have been updated: 1994, 2002, 2006, but building outperforms all of these. Runs on a single domestic sized central heating boiler. Would have scored 13 out of 10 on the Carbon Index Scale.

7 7 Conservation: management improvements – Careful Monitoring and Analysis can reduce energy consumption. thermal comfort +28% User Satisfaction noise +26% lighting +25% air quality +36% A Low Energy Building is also a better place to work in

8 ZICER Building Heating Energy consumption as new in 2003 was reduced by further 50% by careful record keeping, management techniques and an adaptive approach to control. Incorporates 34 kW of Solar Panels on top floor Low Energy Building of the Year Award 2005 awarded by the Carbon Trust.

9 The ZICER Building – Main part of the building High in thermal mass Air tight High insulation standards Triple glazing with low emissivity ~ equivalent to quintuple glazing 9 The first floor open plan office The first floor cellular offices

10 10 Operation of Main Building Mechanically ventilated that utilizes hollow core ceiling slabs as supply air ducts to the space Regenerative heat exchanger Incoming air into the AHU

11 11 Air enters the internal occupied space Operation of Main Building Air passes through hollow cores in the ceiling slabs Filter Heater

12 12 Operation of Main Building Recovers 87% of Ventilation Heat Requirement. Space for future chilling Out of the building Return stale air is extracted from each floor The return air passes through the heat exchanger

13 Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures Heat is transferred to the air before entering the room Slabs store heat from appliances and body heat. Winter Day Air Temperature is same as building fabric leading to a more pleasant working environment Warm air 13

14 Heat is transferred to the air before entering the room Slabs also radiate heat back into room Winter Night In late afternoon heating is turned off. Cold air Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures 14

15 Draws out the heat accumulated during the day Cools the slabs to act as a cool store the following day Summer night night ventilation/ free cooling Cool air Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures 15

16 Slabs pre-cool the air before entering the occupied space concrete absorbs and stores heat less/no need for air-conditioning / Summer day Warm air Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures 16

17 17 Good Management has reduced Energy Requirements Space Heating Consumption reduced by 57% kWh/

18 Mono-crystalline PV on roof ~ 27 kW in 10 arrays Poly- crystalline on façade ~ 6.7 kW in 3 arrays ZICER Building Photo shows only part of top Floor 18

19 19 Arrangement of Cells on Facade Individual cells are connected horizontally As shadow covers one column all cells are inactive If individual cells are connected vertically, only those cells actually in shadow are affected. Cells active Cells inactive even though not covered by shadow 19

20 Use of PV generated energy Sometimes electricity is exported Inverters are only 91% efficient Most use is for computers DC power packs are inefficient typically less than 60% efficient Need an integrated approach Peak output is 34 kW 34 kW 20

21 Engine Generator 36% Electricity 50% Heat Gas Heat Exchanger Exhaust Heat Exchanger 11% Flue Losses3% Radiation Losses 86% Localised generation makes use of waste heat. Reduces conversion losses significantly Conversion efficiency improvements – Building Scale CHP 61% Flue Losses 36% 21

22 UEAs Combined Heat and Power 3 units each generating up to 1.0 MW electricity and 1.4 MW heat 22

23 23 Conversion efficiency improvements 1997/98 electricitygas oilTotal MWh Emission factorkg/kWh Carbon dioxideTonnes ElectricityHeat 1999/ 2000 Total site CHP generation exportimportboilersCHPoiltotal MWh Emission factor kg/kWh CO 2 Tonnes Before installation After installation This represents a 33% saving in carbon dioxide 23

24 24 Conversion efficiency improvements Load Factor of CHP Plant at UEA Demand for Heat is low in summer: plant cannot be used effectively More electricity could be generated in summer 24

25 A typical Air conditioning/Refrigeration Unit Throttle Valve Condenser Heat rejected Evaporator Heat extracted for cooling High Temperature High Pressure Low Temperature Low Pressure Compressor 25

26 Absorption Heat Pump Adsorption Heat pump reduces electricity demand and increases electricity generated Throttle Valve Condenser Heat rejected Evaporator Heat extracted for cooling High Temperature High Pressure Low Temperature Low Pressure Heat from external source W ~ 0 Absorber Desorber Heat Exchanger 26

27 A 1 MW Adsorption chiller 1 MW Reduces electricity demand in summer Increases electricity generated locally Saves ~500 tonnes Carbon Dioxide annually Uses Waste Heat from CHP provides most of chilling requirements in summer 27

28 28 Photo-Voltaics Advanced Biomass CHP using Gasification Efficient CHP Absorption Chilling Trailblazing to a Low Carbon Future

29 Change since Change since 1990 Students % % Floor Area (m 2 ) % % CO 2 (tonnes) % % CO 2 kg/m % % CO 2 kg/student % % Efficient CHP Absorption Chilling Trailblazing to a Low Carbon Future

30 Target Day Results of the Big Switch-Off With a concerted effort savings of 25% or more are possible How can these be translated into long term savings? 30

31 31 UEAs Pathway to a Low Carbon Future: A summary 5.Offset Carbon Emissions 2.Good Management 3.Improving Conversion Efficiency 1.Raising Awareness 4.Using Renewable Energy

32 32 Conclusions UEA has achieved Carbon reductions by: Constructing Low Energy Buildings Effective adaptive energy management which have typically reduced energy requirements in a low energy building by 50% or more. Use of Renewable Energy: Photovoltaic electric generation but opportunities were missed which would have made more optimum use of electricity generated. The existing CHP plant reduced carbon emissions by around 30% Adsorption chilling has been a win-win situation reducing summertime electricity demand and increasing electricity generated locally. Awareness raising of occupants of buildings can lead to significant savings By the end of 2011, UEA should have reduced its carbon emissions per student by 70% compared to 1990.

33 33 Worlds First MBA in Strategic Carbon Management Sixth cohort started in January 2013 Modular Part Time version started in 2010 at UEA- London A partnership between The Norwich Business School and The 5** School of Environmental Sciences Sharing the Expertise of the University And Finally Lao Tzu ( BC) Chinese Artist and Taoist philosopher "If you do not change direction, you may end up where you are heading." See for presentation 33


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