Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

CRed carbon reduction Low-carbon Energy Innovations: Bridging the Gaps between Science and Reality: What UEA is doing? Energy Science Director: HSBC Director.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "CRed carbon reduction Low-carbon Energy Innovations: Bridging the Gaps between Science and Reality: What UEA is doing? Energy Science Director: HSBC Director."— Presentation transcript:

1 CRed carbon reduction Low-carbon Energy Innovations: Bridging the Gaps between Science and Reality: What UEA is doing? Energy Science Director: HSBC Director of Low Carbon Innovation School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia Energy for Innovation: Norwich 4 th February 2009 Keith Tovey ( ) M.A., PhD, CEng, MICE, CEnv CRed Recipient of James Watt Gold Medal 5 th October 2007

2 Low Energy Buildings and their Management Low Carbon Energy Provision –Photovoltaics –CHP –Adsorption chilling –Biomass Gasification Awareness issues and Management of Existing Buildings Low-carbon Energy Innovations: Bridging the Gaps between Science and Reality: What UEA is doing? Low Energy Buildings and their Management

3 Original buildings Teaching wall Library Student residences

4 Nelson Court Constable Terrace

5 Low Energy Educational Buildings Elizabeth Fry Building ZICER Nursing and Midwifery School Medical School Medical School Phase 2 2

6 The Elizabeth Fry Building Cost 6% more but has heating requirement ~25% of average building at time. Building Regulations have been updated: 1994, 2002, 2006, but building outperforms all of these. Runs on a single domestic sized central heating boiler.

7 Conservation: management improvements Careful Monitoring and Analysis can reduce energy consumption.

8 ZICER Building Heating Energy consumption as new in 2003 was reduced by further 57% by careful record keeping, management techniques and an adaptive approach to control. Incorporates 34 kW of Solar Panels on top floor Won the Low Energy Building of the Year Award 2005

9 The ground floor open plan office The first floor open plan office The first floor cellular offices

10 The ZICER Building – Main part of the building High in thermal mass Air tight High insulation standards Triple glazing with low emissivity ~ equivalent to quintuple glazing

11 11 Operation of Main Building Mechanically ventilated that utilizes hollow core ceiling slabs as supply air ducts to the space Regenerative heat exchanger Incoming air into the AHU

12 12 Air enters the internal occupied space Operation of Main Building Air passes through hollow cores in the ceiling slabs Filter Heater

13 13 Operation of Main Building Recovers 87% of Ventilation Heat Requirement. Space for future chilling Out of the building Return stale air is extracted from each floor The return air passes through the heat exchanger

14 Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures Heat is transferred to the air before entering the room Slabs store heat from appliances and body heat. Winter Day Air Temperature is same as building fabric leading to a more pleasant working environment Warm air

15 Heat is transferred to the air before entering the room Slabs also radiate heat back into room Winter Night In late afternoon heating is turned off. Cold air Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures

16 Draws out the heat accumulated during the day Cools the slabs to act as a cool store the following day Summer night night ventilation/ free cooling Cool air Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures

17 Slabs pre-cool the air before entering the occupied space concrete absorbs and stores heat less/no need for air-conditioning / Summer day Warm air Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures

18 18 Good Management has reduced Energy Requirements Space Heating Consumption reduced by 57% kWh/

19 209441GJ GJ GJ Life Cycle Energy Requirements of ZICER compared to other buildings ZICER Materials Production Materials Transport On site construction energy Workforce Transport Intrinsic Heating / Cooling energy / Functional Energy Refurbishment Energy Demolition Energy 28% 54% 34% 51% 61% 29%

20 Life Cycle Energy Requirements of ZICER compared to other buildings Compared to the Air-conditioned office, ZICER as built recovers extra energy required in construction in under 1 year.

21 Low Energy Buildings and their Management Low Carbon Energy Provision –Photovoltaics –CHP –Adsorption chilling –Biomass Gasification Awareness issues and Management of Existing Buildings Low-carbon Energy Innovations: Bridging the Gaps between Science and Reality: What UEA is doing?

22 Mono-crystalline PV on roof ~ 27 kW in 10 arrays Poly- crystalline on façade ~ 6.7 kW in 3 arrays ZICER Building Photo shows only part of top Floor

23 23 Arrangement of Cells on Facade Individual cells are connected horizontally As shadow covers one column all cells are inactive If individual cells are connected vertically, only those cells actually in shadow are affected. Cells active Cells inactive even though not covered by shadow

24 Use of PV generated energy Sometimes electricity is exported Inverters are only 91% efficient Most use is for computers DC power packs are inefficient typically less than 60% efficient Need an integrated approach Peak output is 34 kW 34 kW

25 Engine Generator 36% Electricity 50% Heat Gas Heat Exchanger Exhaust Heat Exchanger 11% Flue Losses3% Radiation Losses 86% Localised generation makes use of waste heat. Reduces conversion losses significantly Conversion efficiency improvements – Building Scale CHP 61% Flue Losses 36%

26 UEAs Combined Heat and Power 3 units each generating up to 1.0 MW electricity and 1.4 MW heat

27 27 Conversion efficiency improvements 1997/98 electricitygas oilTotal MWh Emission factorkg/kWh Carbon dioxideTonnes ElectricityHeat 1999/ 2000 Total site CHP generation exportimportboilersCHPoiltotal MWh Emission factor kg/kWh CO 2 Tonnes Before installation After installation This represents a 33% saving in carbon dioxide

28 28 Conversion efficiency improvements Load Factor of CHP Plant at UEA Demand for Heat is low in summer: plant cannot be used effectively More electricity could be generated in summer

29 A typical Air conditioning/Refrigeration Unit Throttle Valve Condenser Heat rejected Evaporator Heat extracted for cooling High Temperature High Pressure Low Temperature Low Pressure Compressor

30 Absorption Heat Pump Adsorption Heat pump reduces electricity demand and increases electricity generated Throttle Valve Condenser Heat rejected Evaporator Heat extracted for cooling High Temperature High Pressure Low Temperature Low Pressure Heat from external source W ~ 0 Absorber Desorber Heat Exchanger

31 A 1 MW Adsorption chiller 1 MW Reduces electricity demand in summer Increases electricity generated locally Saves ~500 tonnes Carbon Dioxide annually Uses Waste Heat from CHP provides most of chilling requirements in summer

32 The Future: Biomass Advanced Gasifier/ Combined Heat and Power Addresses increasing demand for energy as University expands Will provide an extra 1.4MW of electrical energy and 2MWth heat Will have under 7 year payback Will use sustainable local wood fuel mostly from waste from saw mills Will reduce Carbon Emissions of UEA by ~ 25% despite increasing student numbers by 250%

33 – ,047 students (239% INCREASE) –138, ,000 sq.m (49% INCREASE) –19, ,652 T of CO 2 (10% INCREASE) – kg/student (53% reduction) – kg/CO 2 /sq.m (25%reduction) 2009 with Biomass in operation –24.5% reduction in CO 2 over 1990 levels despite increases in students and building area –More than 70% reduction in emission per student The Future: Biomass Advanced Gasifier/ Combined Heat and Power

34 Low Energy Buildings and their Management Low Carbon Energy Provision –Photovoltaics –CHP –Adsorption chilling –Biomass Gasification Awareness issues and Management of Existing Buildings Low-carbon Energy Innovations: Bridging the Gaps between Science and Reality: What UEA is doing?

35 Target Day Results of the Big Switch-Off With a concerted effort savings of 25% or more are possible How can these be translated into long term savings?

36 36 The Behavioural Dimension Social Attitudes towards energy consumption have a profound effect on actual consumption Data collected from 114 houses in Norwich between mid November 2006 and mid March 2007 For a given size of household electricity consumption for appliances [NOT HEATING or HOT WATER] can vary by as much as 9 times. When income levels are accounted for, variation is still 6 times

37 Relatively large scatter – indicative of poor control Abnormally high consumption could be indicative of malfunction Upper and lower bands drawn +/- 1.5 standard deviations would initiate around 2 reporting incidents a year (based on monthly reporting. CRed carbon reduction Managing Heating Requirements in an Office Building

38 Electricity Consumption in an Office Building in East Anglia CRed carbon reduction Consumption rises to nearly double level of early Malfunction of Air-conditioning plant. Extra fuel cost £ per annum Additional CO 2 emitted ~ 100 tonnes. Low Energy Lighting Installed

39 Electricity Consumption in Office Buildings (kWh/m 2 ) CRed carbon reduction Annual Household consumption of Electricity in Norwich 3720 kWh 17885Typical Good Practice Air- conditioned Naturally ventilated Building 3 Building 2Building 1 Local Authority Offices Commercial Buildings Electricity Consumption per employee (kWh/annum) Building Building Building 33226

40 40 A Pathway to a Low Carbon Future: A summary 4.Using Renewable Energy 5.Offset Carbon Emissions 3.Using Efficient Equipment 1.Raising Awareness 2.Good Management

41 41 Worlds First MBA in Strategic Carbon Management Second cohort January 2009 A partnership between The Norwich Business School and The 5** School of Environmental Sciences Sharing the Expertise of the University And Finally Lao Tzu ( BC) Chinese Artist and Taoist philosopher "If you do not change direction, you may end up where you are heading." See www2.env.uea.ac.uk/cred/creduea.htm for presentation


Download ppt "CRed carbon reduction Low-carbon Energy Innovations: Bridging the Gaps between Science and Reality: What UEA is doing? Energy Science Director: HSBC Director."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google