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1 Carbon Reduction Strategies at the University of East Anglia CRed Carbon Reduction Rotary Group Study Exchange 8 th April 2009 N.K. Tovey ( ) M.A, PhD,

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Presentation on theme: "1 Carbon Reduction Strategies at the University of East Anglia CRed Carbon Reduction Rotary Group Study Exchange 8 th April 2009 N.K. Tovey ( ) M.A, PhD,"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Carbon Reduction Strategies at the University of East Anglia CRed Carbon Reduction Rotary Group Study Exchange 8 th April 2009 N.K. Tovey ( ) M.A, PhD, CEng, MICE, CEnv Н.К.Тови М.А., д-р технических наук Energy Science Director CRed Project HSBC Director of Low Carbon Innovation Recipient of James Watt Gold Medal 2007

2 2 Welcome to the University of East Anglia School of Environmental Sciences A 5** Research department Rated in top 5 Environmental Sciences Department in world Rated Excellent in Teaching Many World Renowned Centres –Tyndall Centre, Climate Research Unit –CRed – Carbon Reduction Project –etc. –Zuckerman Institute for Connective Environmental Research (ZICER)

3 3 Original buildings Teaching wall Library Student residences

4 4 Nelson Court Constable Terrace

5 5 Low Energy Educational Buildings Düşük Enerjili Eğitim Binaları Elizabeth Fry Building Elizabeth Fry Binası ZICER Nursing and Midwifery Hemşirelik ve Ebelik Okulu Medical School Tıp Fakültesi Binası Medical School Phase 2 Tıp Fakültesi Binası 2. Evre

6 6 The Elizabeth Fry Building 1994 Cost ~6% more but has heating requirement ~20% of average building at time. Significantly outperforms even latest Building Regulations. Runs on a single domestic sized central heating boiler.

7 7 Conservation: management improvements – Careful Monitoring and Analysis can reduce energy consumption. thermal comfort +28% User Satisfaction noise +26% lighting +25% air quality +36% A Low Energy Building is also a better place to work in

8 8 ZICER Building Heating Energy consumption as new in 2003 was reduced by further 50% by careful record keeping, management techniques and an adaptive approach to control. Incorporates 34 kW of Solar Panels on top floor Low Energy Building of the Year Award 2005 awarded by the Carbon Trust.

9 9 The ZICER Building - Description Four storeys high and a basement Total floor area of 2860 sq.m Two construction types Main part of the building High in thermal mass Air tight High insulation standards Triple glazing with low emissivity Structural Engineers: Whitby Bird

10 10 The ground floor open plan office The first floor open plan office The first floor cellular offices

11 11 Operation of Main Building Mechanically ventilated that utilizes hollow core ceiling slabs as supply air ducts to the space Regenerative heat exchanger Incoming air into the AHU 11

12 12 Air enters the internal occupied space Operation of Main Building Air passes through hollow cores in the ceiling slabs Filter Heater 12

13 13 Operation of Main Building Recovers 87% of Ventilation Heat Requirement. Space for future chilling Out of the building Return stale air is extracted from each floor The return air passes through the heat exchanger 13

14 14 The Termodeck Principle Air to room Air Supply into hollow core system

15 15 Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures Heat is transferred to the air before entering the room Slabs store heat from appliances and body heat. Winter Day Air Temperature is same as building fabric leading to a more pleasant working environment Warm air 15

16 16 Heat is transferred to the air before entering the room Slabs also radiate heat back into room Winter Night In late afternoon heating is turned off. Cold air Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures 16

17 17 Draws out the heat accumulated during the day Cools the slabs to act as a cool store the following day Summer night night ventilation/ free cooling Cool air Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures 17

18 18 Slabs pre-cool the air before entering the occupied space concrete absorbs and stores heat less/no need for air-conditioning / Summer day Warm air Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures 18

19 19 Good Management has reduced Energy Requirements Space Heating Consumption reduced by 57% kWh/ 19

20 20 Top floor is an exhibition area – also to promote PV Windows are semi transparent Mono-crystalline PV on roof ~ 27 kW in 10 arrays Poly- crystalline on façade ~ 6/7 kW in 3 arrays ZICER Building Photo shows only part of top Floor

21 21 Arrangement of Cells on Facade Individual cells are connected horizontally As shadow covers one column all cells are inactive If individual cells are connected vertically, only those cells actually in shadow are affected.

22 22 Use of PV generated energy Sometimes electricity is exported Inverters are only 91% efficient Most use is for computers DC power packs are inefficient typically less than 60% efficient Need an integrated approach Peak output is 34 kW

23 23 Engine Generator 36% Electricity 50% Heat GAS Engine heat Exchanger Exhaust Heat Exchanger 11% Flue Losses3% Radiation Losses 86% efficient Localised generation makes use of waste heat. Reduces conversion losses significantly Conversion efficiency improvements – Building Scale CHP 61% Flue Losses 36% efficient

24 24 Conversion efficiency improvements 1997/98 electricitygas oilTotal MWh Emission factorkg/kWh Carbon dioxideTonnes ElectricityHeat 1999/ 2000 Total site CHP generation exportimportboilersCHPoiltotal MWh Emission factor kg/kWh CO 2 Tonnes Before installation After installation This represents a 33% saving in carbon dioxide

25 25 Conversion efficiency improvements Load Factor of CHP Plant at UEA Demand for Heat is low in summer: plant cannot be used effectively More electricity could be generated in summer

26 26 A typical Air conditioning/Refrigeration Unit Throttle Valve Condenser Heat rejected Evaporator Heat extracted for cooling High Temperature High Pressure Low Temperature Low Pressure Compressor 26

27 27 Absorption Heat Pump Adsorption Heat pump reduces electricity demand and increases electricity generated Throttle Valve Condenser Heat rejected Evaporator Heat extracted for cooling High Temperature High Pressure Low Temperature Low Pressure Heat from external source W ~ 0 Absorber Desorber Heat Exchanger 27

28 28 A 1 MW Adsorption chiller 1 MW Reduces electricity demand in summer Increases electricity generated locally Saves ~500 tonnes Carbon Dioxide annually Uses Waste Heat from CHP provides most of chilling requirements in summer 28

29 29 Centralised Chilling System at UEA

30 30 The Future: Biomass Advanced Gasifier/ Combined Heat and Power Addresses increasing demand for energy as University expands Will provide an extra 1.4MW of electrical energy and 2MWth heat Will have under 7 year payback Will use sustainable local wood fuel mostly from waste from saw mills Will reduce Carbon Emissions of UEA by ~ 25% despite increasing student numbers by 250% 30

31 – ,047 students (239% INCREASE) –138, ,000 sq.m (49% INCREASE) –19, ,652 T of CO 2 (10% INCREASE) – kg/student (53% reduction) – kg/CO 2 /sq.m (25%reduction) 2009 with Biomass in operation –24.5% reduction in CO 2 over 1990 levels despite increases in students and building area –More than 70% reduction in emission per student The Future: Biomass Advanced Gasifier/ Combined Heat and Power 31

32 32 Target Day Results of the Big Switch-Off With a concerted effort savings of 25% or more are possible How can these be translated into long term savings?

33 33 A Pathway to a Low Carbon Future: A summary 4.Using Renewable Energy 5.Offset Carbon Emissions 3.Using Efficient Equipment 1.Raising Awareness 2.Good Management 33

34 34 Worlds First MBA in Strategic Carbon Management Second cohort January 2009 A partnership between The Norwich Business School and The 5** School of Environmental Sciences Sharing the Expertise of the University And Finally Lao Tzu ( BC) Chinese Artist and Taoist philosopher "If you do not change direction, you may end up where you are heading." See www2.env.uea.ac.uk/cred/creduea.htm for presentation 34

35 35 WEBSITE cred-uk.org/ This presentation is available from tomorrow at above WEB Site: follow Academic Links Keith Tovey ( ) Energy Science Director HSBC Director of Low Carbon Innovation Carbon Reduction Strategies at the University of East Anglia


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