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NBS-3B1Y Strategic Corporate Sustainability 3 rd /4 th December 2012 Keith Tovey ( ) M.A., PhD, CEng, MICE, CEnv Reader Emeritus in Environmental Sciences.

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Presentation on theme: "NBS-3B1Y Strategic Corporate Sustainability 3 rd /4 th December 2012 Keith Tovey ( ) M.A., PhD, CEng, MICE, CEnv Reader Emeritus in Environmental Sciences."— Presentation transcript:

1 NBS-3B1Y Strategic Corporate Sustainability 3 rd /4 th December 2012 Keith Tovey ( ) M.A., PhD, CEng, MICE, CEnv Reader Emeritus in Environmental Sciences Recipient of James Watt Gold Medal 5 th October Low Carbon Strategies at the University of East Anglia

2 2 NBS-3B1Y Strategic Corporate Sustainability Access to this presentation and numerous links relating to Energy may be found at or

3 Links to Energy Related Sites Powerpoint Presentation of Energy Supply at UEA and Strategies for Low Carbon at UEA [this presentation] Powerpoint Presentation of Energy Supply at UEA Video Clips of Biomass System and also Carbon Footprinting of BBC Studios - [given today] Video Clips Supplementary Powerpoint of challenges facing UK Energy Supply – [given tomorrow if time permits] Supplementary Powerpoint of challenges facing UK Energy Supply Recent Government Documents on Energy including Consultations and responses by N.K.Tovey Recent Government Documents on Energy including Consultations and responses by N.K.Tovey Papers written by N.K. Tovey relating to Energy and Carbon including reports on UEA Energy Papers written by N.K. Tovey relating to Energy and Carbon including reports on UEA Energy Sustainability Report relating to several branches of an International Bank. Sustainability Report relating to several branches of an International Bank. Return to Main UEA Energy Page 3 NBS-3B1Y Strategic Corporate Sustainability

4 Introduction and Background to Energy Supply at UEA Low Energy Buildings and their Management Low Carbon Energy Provision –Photovoltaics –CHP –Adsorption chilling –Biomass Gasification The Energy Tour – Meet in CD Annexe 11:00 tomorrow – ensure you are not wearing open sandals/shoes –Elizabeth Fry building & ZICER –Central Boiler House –?? Biomass Plant Questions & Answers If time permits: - Energy Security: Hard Choices facing the UK Low Carbon Strategies at the University of East Anglia 4

5 5 Original buildings Teaching wall Library Student residences

6 History of Energy Supply at UEA Early 1960s: central boiler house built with three 8MW boilers providing water at 105 – 115 o C at 10 bar pressure to circulate around the campus. Fuel used: heavy residual oil 1984: small 4 MW boiler was added 1987: interruptible gas was provided so boiler could run on either heavy fuel oil or gas. 1997/8: one 8 MW boiler removed and 3 1 MW CHP plants installed 2002: remaining heavy fuel oil provision converted to light oil 2006: Absorption Chiller installed 2010: Biomass Plant installed Most buildings on campus have heat provision from central boiler house. – Exceptions: Elizabeth Fry, Queens, EDU, Nelson Court, Constable Terrace. 6

7 7 Nelson Court Constable Terrace 7

8 8 Low Energy Educational Buildings Elizabeth Fry Building ZICER Nursing and Midwifery School Medical School 8 Medical School Phase 2 Thomas Paine Study Centre

9 9 Constable Terrace Four Storey Student Residence Divided into houses of 10 units each with en-suite facilities Heat Recovery of body and cooking heat ~ 50%. Insulation standards exceed 2006 standards Small 250 W panel heaters in individual rooms.

10 10 Educational Buildings at UEA in 1990s Queens Building 1993 Elizabeth Fry Building 1994 Elizabeth Fry Building Employs Termodeck principle and uses ~ 25% of Queens Building

11 11 Cost ~6% more but has heating requirement ~20% of average building at time. Significantly outperforms even latest Building Regulations. Runs on a single domestic sized central heating boiler. The Elizabeth Fry Building 1994

12 12 Conservation: management improvements Careful Monitoring and Analysis can reduce energy consumption..

13 13 Comparison with other buildings Energy Performance Carbon Dioxide Performance thermal comfort +28% air quality +36% lighting +25% noise +26% User Satisfaction A low Energy Building is also a better place to work in.

14 ZICER Building Heating Energy consumption as new in 2003 was reduced by further 57% by careful record keeping, management techniques and an adaptive approach to control. Incorporates 34 kW of Solar Panels on top floor Won the Low Energy Building of the Year Award

15 The ground floor open plan office The first floor open plan office The first floor cellular offices 15

16 The ZICER Building – Main part of the building High in thermal mass Air tight High insulation standards Triple glazing with low emissivity ~ equivalent to quintuple glazing 16

17 Operation of Main Building Mechanically ventilated that utilizes hollow core ceiling slabs as supply air ducts to the space Regenerative heat exchanger Incoming air into the AHU 17

18 Air enters the internal occupied space Operation of Main Building Air passes through hollow cores in the ceiling slabs Filter Heater 18

19 Operation of Main Building Recovers 87% of Ventilation Heat Requirement. Space for future chilling Out of the building Return stale air is extracted from each floor The return air passes through the heat exchanger 19

20 Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures Heat is transferred to the air before entering the room Slabs store heat from appliances and body heat. Winter Day Air Temperature is same as building fabric leading to a more pleasant working environment Warm air 20

21 Heat is transferred to the air before entering the room Slabs also radiate heat back into room Winter Night In late afternoon heating is turned off. Cold air Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures 21

22 Draws out the heat accumulated during the day Cools the slabs to act as a cool store the following day Summer night night ventilation/ free cooling Cool air Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures 22

23 Slabs pre-cool the air before entering the occupied space concrete absorbs and stores heat less/no need for air-conditioning / Summer day Warm air Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures 23

24 Good Management has reduced Energy Requirements Space Heating Consumption reduced by 57% kWh/ 24

25 209441GJ GJ GJ Life Cycle Energy Requirements of ZICER compared to other buildings ZICER Materials Production Materials Transport On site construction energy Workforce Transport Intrinsic Heating / Cooling energy / Functional Energy Refurbishment Energy Demolition Energy 28% 54% 34% 51% 61% 29% 25

26 Life Cycle Energy Requirements of ZICER compared to other buildings Compared to the Air-conditioned office, ZICER as built recovers extra energy required in construction in under 1 year. 26

27 Low Energy Buildings and their Management Low Carbon Energy Provision –Photovoltaics –CHP –Adsorption chilling –Biomass Gasification The Energy Tour Energy Security: Hard Choices facing the UK Low Carbon Strategies at the University of East Anglia 27

28 Mono-crystalline PV on roof ~ 27 kW in 10 arrays Poly- crystalline on façade ~ 6.7 kW in 3 arrays ZICER Building Photo shows only part of top Floor 28

29 All arrays of cells on roof have similar performance respond to actual solar radiation The three arrays on the façade respond differently Performance of PV cells on ZICER 29

30 Orientation relative to True North 30

31 31

32 32 Arrangement of Cells on Facade Individual cells are connected horizontally As shadow covers one column all cells are inactive If individual cells are connected vertically, only those cells actually in shadow are affected. Cells active Cells inactive even though not covered by shadow 32

33 Use of PV generated energy Sometimes electricity is exported Inverters are only 91% efficient Most use is for computers DC power packs are inefficient typically less than 60% efficient Need an integrated approach Peak output is 34 kW 34 kW 33

34 Engine Generator 36% Electricity 50% Heat Gas Heat Exchanger Exhaust Heat Exchanger 11% Flue Losses3% Radiation Losses 86% Localised generation makes use of waste heat. Reduces conversion losses significantly Conversion efficiency improvements – Building Scale CHP 61% Flue Losses 36% 34

35 UEAs Combined Heat and Power 3 units each generating up to 1.0 MW electricity and 1.4 MW heat 35

36 36 Conversion efficiency improvements 1997/98 electricitygas oilTotal MWh Emission factorkg/kWh Carbon dioxideTonnes ElectricityHeat 1999/ 2000 Total site CHP generation exportimportboilersCHPoiltotal MWh Emission factor kg/kWh CO 2 Tonnes Before installation After installation This represents a 33% saving in carbon dioxide 36

37 37 Conversion efficiency improvements Load Factor of CHP Plant at UEA Demand for Heat is low in summer: plant cannot be used effectively More electricity could be generated in summer 37

38 A typical Air conditioning/Refrigeration Unit Throttle Valve Condenser Heat rejected Evaporator Heat extracted for cooling High Temperature High Pressure Low Temperature Low Pressure Compressor 38

39 Absorption Heat Pump Adsorption Heat pump reduces electricity demand and increases electricity generated Throttle Valve Condenser Heat rejected Evaporator Heat extracted for cooling High Temperature High Pressure Low Temperature Low Pressure Heat from external source W ~ 0 Absorber Desorber Heat Exchanger 39

40 A 1 MW Adsorption chiller 1 MW Reduces electricity demand in summer Increases electricity generated locally Saves ~500 tonnes Carbon Dioxide annually Uses Waste Heat from CHP provides most of chilling requirements in summer 40

41 The Future: Biomass Advanced Gasifier/ Combined Heat and Power Addresses increasing demand for energy as University expands Will provide an extra 1.4MW of electrical energy and 2MWth heat Will have under 7 year payback Will use sustainable local wood fuel mostly from waste from saw mills Will reduce Carbon Emissions of UEA by ~ 25% despite increasing student numbers by 250% 41

42 42 Low Energy Buildings Effective Adaptive Energy Management Photovoltaics Combined Heat and Power Absorption Chilling Advanced CHP using Biomass Gasification Worlds First MBA in Strategic Carbon Management Low Energy Buildings Photo-Voltaics Efficient CHP Absorption Chilling Trailblazing to a Low Carbon Future Low Energy Buildings

43 43 Photo-Voltaics Advanced Biomass CHP using Gasification Efficient CHP Absorption Chilling Trailblazing to a Low Carbon Future

44 Change since Change since 1990 Students % % Floor Area (m 2 ) % % CO 2 (tonnes) % % CO 2 kg/m % % CO 2 kg/student % % Efficient CHP Absorption Chilling Trailblazing to a Low Carbon Future

45 45 Conclusions Effective adaptive energy management can reduce heating energy requirements in a low energy building by 50% or more. Heavy weight buildings can be used to effectively control energy consumption Photovoltaic cells need to take account of intended use of electricity use in building to get the optimum value. Building scale CHP can reduce carbon emissions significantly Adsorption chilling should be included to ensure optimum utilisation of CHP plant, to reduce electricity demand, and allow increased generation of electricity locally. Promoting Awareness can result in up to 25% savings When the Biomass Plant is fully operational, UEA will have cut its carbon emissions per student by over 70% since Lao Tzu ( BC) Chinese Artist and Taoist philosopher "If you do not change direction, you may end up where you are heading." Finally!


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