Presentation on theme: "Energy Saving: The UK Perspective Keith Tovey Energy Science Director CRed Project Н.К.Тови М.А., д-р технических наук Факультет экологических исследований."— Presentation transcript:
Energy Saving: The UK Perspective Keith Tovey Energy Science Director CRed Project Н.К.Тови М.А., д-р технических наук Факультет экологических исследований Университета Восточной Англии
The Background to Energy Conservation –Why is it important? Perception of Energy Conservation in the UK? How is Energy Conservation promoted in the UK? Conclusions Energy Saving: The UK Perspective The Background to Energy Conservation
Energy Saving: Why is it important? The UK has been self sufficient in energy Under present trends the UK will be a substantive importer of natural gas and oil by 2020 It makes sense to reduce energy demand and still remain competitive economically. Reducing energy demand will also see a reduction in carbon dioxide - the main contributor to Global Warming The Government has set targets and provided mechanisms to provide grants for individuals and industry. However, more could be done.
In UK each person is consuming energy at a rate of 5.1 kW In USA it is 10.6 kW 1/20th or Worlds Population consumes 25% of all energy In Europe it is 5.7 kW In Russia it is also 5.7 kW Globally it is around 2 kW ENERGY Consumption > Carbon Dioxide > Global Warming The Background to Energy Conservation
Energy Saving: The UK Perspective Total Energy Demand in UK GDP changes in UK
Energy Saving: The UK Perspective Wealth of UK increased uniformly with energy in 1950s and 1960s Major infra-structure projects in late 1960s - early 1970s 1979 - 1992 restructuring followed by increase efficiency 1992 - increased conservation
Energy Saving: The UK Perspective UK has become more efficient in using energy to generate wealth over past 50 years. Generate the same wealth with 45% of energy as in 1950. Improvement ~ 1.45% per annum
051015202530 kW per Head 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 GDP per head (US$ (95) USA Russia CanadaChina India UK Japan Germany Poland France Qatar Other EU Countries Nordic EU New EU Mediterranean EU Energy - GDP Relationships The Background to Energy Conservation
Qatar USA Canada Australia Russia Japan France Germany UK Developing Countries Carbon Dioxide Emissions per unit of Energy The Background to Energy Conservation
How much Carbon Dioxide is each person emitting as a result of the energy they use? In UK 9 tonnes per annum. What does 9 tonnes look like? Equivalent of 5 Hot Air Balloons! To combat Global Warming we must reduce CO 2 by 60% i.e. to 2 Hot Air Balloons How far does one have to drive to emit the same amount of CO 2 as heating an old persons room for 1 hour? 3.2 km The Background to Energy Conservation
per capita Consumption in Watts in UK ~ 5 kW Transport Energy use has risen 10.5% in last decade Domestic use has risen by over 10% The Background to Energy Conservation
Perception of Energy Conservation in the UK? How is Energy Conservation promoted in the UK? Conclusions Energy Saving: The UK Perspective The Domestic Sector Small Businesses An example from a large business
some see Energy Conservation as a way to save money –less interested when they learn it may take many years to pay back others see Energy Conservation as a moral and environmental issue and will strive to incorporate energy saving at an early stage many over-estimate the size of their energy bills several people see themselves as already being energy efficient. –PowerGen Energy Monitor (October 2004) many are influenced by other factors –e.g. double glazing rather than cavity insulation! Many are unaware of what grants are available Energy Saving: Perception of Energy Conservation in the UK? Domestic Consumers
some see Energy Conservation as a way to save money –but say they have little time to undertake measures many have little accurate knowledge of their energy bills or where they could save money and energy. Some make decisions in which energy efficiency is an important factor. Some see a commercial advantage in being able to demonstrate their environmental credentials. several SMEs see themselves as already being energy efficient. –PowerGen Energy Monitor (October 2004) Many are unaware of what grants are available Energy Saving: Perception of Energy Conservation in the UK? Small/Medium sized Businesses (SMEs) number of employees < 250
Many Companies have an Energy Manager some significant reductions in energy use, energy bills, and carbon dioxide reductions have been achieved: –e.g. combined heat and power An example University of East Anglia Unlike Russia, large CHP schemes are not common only one scheme > 500 MW most are schemes < 10 MW and over 50% 1 MW or less UEA has three 1 MW gas engines which provide 70 - 75% of electricity of peak electricity and supply 4.2 MW of heat Energy Saving: Perception of Energy Conservation in the UK? Large Businesses: number of employees > 250
Energy Saving: Perception of Energy Conservation in the UK? University of East Anglia: CHP Scheme
Energy Saving: Perception of Energy Conservation in the UK? Before Installation: Energy and Carbon Dioxide After Installation: Saving in CO 2 : 4824 tonnes or 31.9%
Energy Saving: Perception of Energy Conservation in the UK? Before the scheme Energy Bill > £1 000 000 per annum However, the introduction of the New Electricity Trading Arrangements have had an impact out of balance issues for suppliers to whom exports were sold After scheme Annual Saving initially around £ 400 000 per annum Government targets were to achieve 10 000 MW by 2010 However, number of schemes have declined slightly, and target will not be reached may be difficult to achieve 7500 MW
In summer, UEA has little demand for heat limits amount of electricity generated > 1 MW cooling load provided by electric refrigeration Absorption Chilling will be installed in early 2005. Reduces electrical load and Increases electrical generation Energy Saving: Perception of Energy Conservation in the UK? An absorption chiller uses waste heat to provide cooling
The Background to Energy Conservation Perception of Energy Conservation in the UK? How is Energy Conservation promoted in the UK? Conclusions Energy Saving: The UK Perspective What grants are available How is it financed?
By Government (and Local Government) via: Legislation –e.g. Building Regulations - currently being revised Energy Conservation Grants –e.g. home insulation, low energy light bulbs, etc. Energy Labelling Promotion of Renewable Energy Schemes –e.g. Wind, Solar, Biomass, Wave, Tidal Climatic Change Levy on businesses (0.43p per kWh) Participation in EU (Carbon) Emissions Trading Scheme –~ 7 - 10 Euros per tonne Awareness / Education / Advice –e.g. Energy Saving: How is it promoted in the UK?
Performance of dwellings over the years following Regulation changes. Modern houses use only 20% of energy emit only 20% of CO 2 of pre-war houses Standards to improve further in future Energy Saving: Legislation: Building Regulations
Energy Saving: Energy Conservation Grants Home Energy Conservation Act 1995 - HECA www.heca.co.uk Energy Saving Trust: Grants for Domestic Properties - also Transport www.est.org.uk Carbon Trust: Grants for Businesses www.thecarbontrust.co.uk
Government Targets 10.4% of total electricity by 2010 unlikely to be met - at best 6 - 7% 20% by 2020 Energy Saving: Renewable Energy Onshore 1.5 MW turbine 60 MW offshore Wind Farm at Yarmouth - to be commissioned by end of October 2004. New Wave Powered device - launched 6th August 2004
Climatic Change Levy on businesses Encourages Businesses to reduce energy –0.43p per kWh (electricity) or £4.3 per tonne of carbon dioxide scheme is financially neutral over all businesses –income finances a reduction in National Insurance Contributions paid by all employers for every employee. Energy Efficient premises with large numbers of employees benefit. Heavy energy users with few employees loose out. –Certain key industries e.g. Electricity Generation etc are exempt. Energy Saving: Climatic Change Levy
Comes into force 1st January 2005 All businesses with a thermal output > 20 MW must participate All EU countries have had to set a National Plan consistent with Kyoto Objectives. All EU countries have to allocate each plant (> 20 MW) a number of free credits for the years 2005 - 2007. There is an overall reduction in emissions –e.g. electricity sector to reduce by ~ 15% over period Steps must be taken to conserve energy, buy credits on the open market or pay the ultimate price of 40 Euros a tonne. Current trading price ~ 7 - 10 Euros per tonne will cause price of electricity to consumers to rise. Energy Saving: European Trading Scheme
Understandable Language Energy Saving: Awareness / Education / Advice A mobile phone charger left on ------ up to 25 kg CO 2 a year Standby on television > 60 kg per year Filling up with petrol (~£30 for a full tank) --------- 90 kg of CO 2 (5% of a balloon) A tumble dryer uses four times as much energy as the equivalent washing machine - use the dryer sparingly Boiling an extra cup full of water causes the emission of 25 cupfuls of carbon dioxide.
The Background to Energy Conservation Perception of Energy Conservation in the UK? How is Energy Conservation promoted in the UK? Conclusions Energy Saving: The UK Perspective
UK has made some steps to reduce primary energy More could be done Achieved as a combinations of –Legislation –Energy Conservation GrantsEnergy Labelling –Promotion of Renewable Energy Schemes –Climatic Change Levy –Participation in EU (Carbon) Emissions Trading Scheme –Awareness / Education / Advice Energy Saving: Conclusions
Key Web Sites: Home Energy Conservation Act www.heca.co.uk Energy Saving Trust www.est.org.uk Carbon Trust www.thecarbontrust.co.uk National Energy Foundation www.natenergy.org.uk Н.К.Тови М.А., д-р технических наук Факультет экологических исследований Университета Восточной Англии Energy Science Director, Low Carbon Innovation Centre firstname.lastname@example.org