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Carbon Reduction and Sustainable Construction Scientific Adviser: Low Carbon Innovation Centre School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia.

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Presentation on theme: "Carbon Reduction and Sustainable Construction Scientific Adviser: Low Carbon Innovation Centre School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia."— Presentation transcript:

1 Carbon Reduction and Sustainable Construction Scientific Adviser: Low Carbon Innovation Centre School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia NBSLM03E – Master Class June 2010 Keith Tovey ( ) M.A., PhD, CEng, MICE, CEnv Recipient of James Watt Gold Medal 5 th October 2007 CRed Carbon Reduction 1

2 Issues of Carbon Emissions and Energy Security Low Energy Buildings and their Management Low Carbon Energy Provision –Photovoltaics –CHP –Adsorption chilling –Biomass Gasification Awareness issues and Management of Existing Buildings Carbon Reduction and Sustainable Construction Issues of Carbon Emissions and Energy Security 2

3 3 Per capita Carbon Emissions UK How does UK compare with other countries? Why do some countries emit more CO 2 than others? What is the magnitude of the CO 2 problem? France

4 4 Carbon Emissions and Electricity UK France

5 r 5 Electricity Generation in selected Countries

6 6 Opted Out Coal: Stations can only run for hours more and must close by 2015 New Nuclear assumes completing 1 new nuclear station each year beyond 2018 New Coal assumes completing 1 new coal station each year beyond 2018 Our Choices: They are difficult: Energy Security There is a looming capacity shortfall Even with a full deployment of renewables. A 10% reduction in demand per house will see a rise of 7% in total demand - Increased population decreased household size

7 7 UK Gas Production and Demand Import Gap

8 GAS SUPPLY in UK at 09:00 on 13 th January % UK Production, 14% UK Storage 44% Imports 8

9 Issues of Carbon Emissions and Energy Security Low Energy Buildings and their Management Low Carbon Energy Provision –Photovoltaics –CHP –Adsorption chilling –Biomass Gasification Awareness issues and Management of Existing Buildings Carbon Reduction and Sustainable Construction 9

10 10 Original buildings Teaching wall Library Student residences

11 11 Nelson Court Constable Terrace 11

12 12 Low Energy Educational Buildings Elizabeth Fry Building ZICER Nursing and Midwifery School Medical School 12 Medical School Phase 2 Thomas Paine Study Centre

13 13 Constable Terrace Four Storey Student Residence Divided into houses of 10 units each with en-suite facilities Heat Recovery of body and cooking heat ~ 50%. Insulation standards exceed 2006 standards Small 250 W panel heaters in individual rooms.

14 14 Educational Buildings at UEA in 1990s Queens Building 1993 Elizabeth Fry Building 1994 Elizabeth Fry Building Employs Termodeck principle and uses ~ 25% of Queens Building

15 15 The Elizabeth Fry Building Cost 6% more but has heating requirement ~25% of average building at time. Building Regulations have been updated: 1994, 2002, 2006, but building outperforms all of these. Runs on a single domestic sized central heating boiler. Would have scored 13 out of 10 on the Carbon Index Scale.

16 16 Conservation: management improvements Koruma: yönetimde iyileştirmeler Careful Monitoring and Analysis can reduce energy consumption. Dikkatli İzleme ve Analiz, enerji tüketimini azaltabilir..

17 17 Comparison with other buildings Diğer Binalarla Karşılaştırma Energy Performance Enerji Performansı Carbon Dioxide Performance Karbon Dioksit Performanı

18 18 Non Technical Evaluation of Elizabeth Fry Building Performance Elizabeth Fry Bina Performansının Teknik Olmayan Değerlendirmesi thermal comfort +28% air quality +36% lighting +25% noise +26% User Satisfaction A Low Energy Building is also a better place to work in. Isıl rahatlık +%28 Hava kalitesi +%36 aydınlatma +%25 gürültü +%26 Kullanıcı memnuniyeti Bir Düşük Enerji binası ayrıca içinde çalışmak için de daha iyi bir yerdir. 18

19 ZICER Building Heating Energy consumption as new in 2003 was reduced by further 57% by careful record keeping, management techniques and an adaptive approach to control. Incorporates 34 kW of Solar Panels on top floor Won the Low Energy Building of the Year Award

20 The ground floor open plan office The first floor open plan office The first floor cellular offices 20

21 The ZICER Building – Main part of the building High in thermal mass Air tight High insulation standards Triple glazing with low emissivity ~ equivalent to quintuple glazing 21

22 22 Operation of Main Building Mechanically ventilated that utilizes hollow core ceiling slabs as supply air ducts to the space Regenerative heat exchanger Incoming air into the AHU

23 23 Air enters the internal occupied space Operation of Main Building Air passes through hollow cores in the ceiling slabs Filter Heater

24 24 Operation of Main Building Recovers 87% of Ventilation Heat Requirement. Space for future chilling Out of the building Return stale air is extracted from each floor The return air passes through the heat exchanger

25 Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures Heat is transferred to the air before entering the room Slabs store heat from appliances and body heat. Winter Day Air Temperature is same as building fabric leading to a more pleasant working environment Warm air 25

26 Heat is transferred to the air before entering the room Slabs also radiate heat back into room Winter Night In late afternoon heating is turned off. Cold air Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures 26

27 Draws out the heat accumulated during the day Cools the slabs to act as a cool store the following day Summer night night ventilation/ free cooling Cool air Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures 27

28 Slabs pre-cool the air before entering the occupied space concrete absorbs and stores heat less/no need for air-conditioning / Summer day Warm air Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures 28

29 29 Good Management has reduced Energy Requirements Space Heating Consumption reduced by 57% kWh/

30 209441GJ GJ GJ Life Cycle Energy Requirements of ZICER compared to other buildings ZICER Materials Production Materials Transport On site construction energy Workforce Transport Intrinsic Heating / Cooling energy / Functional Energy Refurbishment Energy Demolition Energy 28% 54% 34% 51% 61% 29% 30

31 Issues of Carbon Emissions and Energy Security Low Energy Buildings and their Management Low Carbon Energy Provision –Photovoltaics –CHP –Adsorption chilling –Biomass Gasification Awareness issues and Management of Existing Buildings Carbon Reduction and Sustainable Construction 31

32 Mono-crystalline PV on roof ~ 27 kW in 10 arrays Poly- crystalline on façade ~ 6.7 kW in 3 arrays ZICER Building Photo shows only part of top Floor 32

33 33 Performance of PV cells on ZICER

34 34 Load (Capacity) factors Façade (kWh) Roof (kWh) Total (kWh) Output per unit area Little difference between orientations in winter months Performance of PV cells on ZICER WinterSummer Façade2%~8% Roof2%15%

35 35 All arrays of cells on roof have similar performance respond to actual solar radiation The three arrays on the façade respond differently Performance of PV cells on ZICER - January Radiation is shown as percentage of mid-day maximum to highlight passage of clouds

36 36

37 37 Arrangement of Cells on Facade Individual cells are connected horizontally As shadow covers one column all cells are inactive If individual cells are connected vertically, only those cells actually in shadow are affected. Cells active Cells inactive even though not covered by shadow 37

38 Use of PV generated energy Sometimes electricity is exported Inverters are only 91% efficient Most use is for computers DC power packs are inefficient typically less than 60% efficient Need an integrated approach Peak output is 34 kW 34 kW 38

39 Engine Generator 36% Electricity 50% Heat Gas Heat Exchanger Exhaust Heat Exchanger 11% Flue Losses3% Radiation Losses 86% Localised generation makes use of waste heat. Reduces conversion losses significantly Conversion efficiency improvements – Building Scale CHP 61% Flue Losses 36% 39

40 UEAs Combined Heat and Power 3 units each generating up to 1.0 MW electricity and 1.4 MW heat 40

41 41 Conversion efficiency improvements 1997/98 electricitygas oilTotal MWh Emission factorkg/kWh Carbon dioxideTonnes ElectricityHeat 1999/ 2000 Total site CHP generation exportimportboilersCHPoiltotal MWh Emission factor kg/kWh CO 2 Tonnes Before installation After installation This represents a 33% saving in carbon dioxide 41

42 42 Conversion efficiency improvements Load Factor of CHP Plant at UEA Demand for Heat is low in summer: plant cannot be used effectively More electricity could be generated in summer 42

43 A typical Air conditioning/Refrigeration Unit Throttle Valve Condenser Heat rejected Evaporator Heat extracted for cooling High Temperature High Pressure Low Temperature Low Pressure Compressor 43

44 Absorption Heat Pump Adsorption Heat pump reduces electricity demand and increases electricity generated Throttle Valve Condenser Heat rejected Evaporator Heat extracted for cooling High Temperature High Pressure Low Temperature Low Pressure Heat from external source W ~ 0 Absorber Desorber Heat Exchanger 44

45 A 1 MW Adsorption chiller 1 MW Reduces electricity demand in summer Increases electricity generated locally Saves ~500 tonnes Carbon Dioxide annually Uses Waste Heat from CHP provides most of chilling requirements in summer 45

46 The Future: Biomass Advanced Gasifier/ Combined Heat and Power Addresses increasing demand for energy as University expands Will provide an extra 1.4MW of electrical energy and 2MWth heat Will have under 7 year payback Will use sustainable local wood fuel mostly from waste from saw mills Will reduce Carbon Emissions of UEA by ~ 25% despite increasing student numbers by 250% 46

47 47 Photo-Voltaics Advanced Biomass CHP using Gasification Efficient CHP Absorption Chilling Trailblazing to a Low Carbon Future

48 Change since Change since 1990 Students % % Floor Area (m 2 ) % % CO 2 (tonnes) % % CO 2 kg/m % % CO 2 kg/student % % Efficient CHP Absorption Chilling Trailblazing to a Low Carbon Future

49 Issues of Carbon Emissions and Energy Security Low Energy Buildings and their Management Low Carbon Energy Provision –Photovoltaics –CHP –Adsorption chilling –Biomass Gasification Awareness issues and Management of Existing Buildings Carbon Reduction and Sustainable Construction 49

50 Target Day Results of the Big Switch-Off With a concerted effort savings of 25% or more are possible How can these be translated into long term savings? 50

51 51 The Behavioural Dimension Social Attitudes towards energy consumption have a profound effect on actual consumption Data collected from 114 houses in Norwich between mid November 2006 and mid March 2007 For a given size of household electricity consumption for appliances [NOT HEATING or HOT WATER] can vary by as much as 9 times. When income levels are accounted for, variation is still 6 times 51

52 Relatively large scatter – indicative of poor control Abnormally high consumption could be indicative of malfunction Upper and lower bands drawn +/- 1.5 standard deviations would initiate around 2 reporting incidents a year (based on monthly reporting. CRed carbon reduction Managing Heating Requirements in an Office Building 52

53 Electricity Consumption in an Office Building in East Anglia CRed carbon reduction Consumption rose to nearly double level of early Malfunction of Air-conditioning plant. Extra fuel cost £ per annum ~£1000 to repair fault Additional CO 2 emitted ~ 100 tonnes. Low Energy Lighting Installed 53

54 54 A Pathway to a Low Carbon Future: A summary 4.Using Renewable Energy 5.Offset Carbon Emissions 3.Using Efficient Equipment 1.Raising Awareness 2.Good Management 54

55 55 Conclusions Buildings built to low energy standards have cost ~ 5% more, but savings have recouped extra costs in around 5 years. Ventilation heat requirements can be large and efficient heat recovery is important. Effective adaptive energy management can reduce heating energy requirements in a low energy building by 50% or more. Photovoltaic cells need to take account of intended use of cells to get the optimum use of electricity generated. Building scale CHP can reduce carbon emissions significantly Adsorption chilling should be included to ensure optimum utilisation of CHP plant, to reduce electricity demand, and allow increased generation of electricity locally. Awareness raising of occupants of buildings can lead to significant savings By the end of 2010, UEA should have reduced its carbon emissions per student by 70% compared to 1990.

56 56 Worlds First MBA in Strategic Carbon Management Third cohort started in January 2010 Modular Part Time version to start in 2010 at UEA- London A partnership between The Norwich Business School and The 5** School of Environmental Sciences Sharing the Expertise of the University And Finally Lao Tzu ( BC) Chinese Artist and Taoist philosopher "If you do not change direction, you may end up where you are heading." See www2.env.uea.ac.uk/cred/creduea.htm for presentation 56

57 57 This presentation will be posted on the WEB tomorrow at: From main page follow Academic Links Keith Tovey ( )


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