Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 1: THE SCIENCE OF LIFE Honors Biology. 1.1 The World Of Biology Biology: the organized and scientific study of life Organism: an independent individual."— Presentation transcript:
1.1 The World Of Biology Biology: the organized and scientific study of life Organism: an independent individual that possesses all characteristics of life Characteristics of Life A. Cell: smallest unit that can perform all life’s processes An organism consisting of only one cell is unicellular. An organism consisting of more than one cell is referred to as multicellular.
1.1 The World Of Biology B. Tissue: collection of specialized cells that perform a specific function C. Organ: collection of Tissues that carry out a specific function in the body
At the Bell Assignment Complete in Notes 1. The smallest unit that can carry on all the functions of life are called A. organellesB. molecules C. cellsD. tissue 2. Living things A. need energyB. reproduceC. are made of cells D. all of these 3. Biology is the study of A. weather B. life C. cells D. energy 4. The sum of all chemical reactions that take in an transform energy is A. metabolismB. photosynthesisC. reproductionD. homeostasis 5. Tissues are groups of molecules that have similar abilities and that allow the organ to function. TRUE or FALSE
1.1 The World Of Biology 2. Response to Stimuli - Living organisms respond to stimuli (physical or chemical changes) - Ex: pupil dilation in eyes, knee jerk reflex
1.1 The World Of Biology 3. Homeostasis All living things must maintain stable internal conditions. homeostasis: maintenance of a stable level of internal conditions in a constantly changing environment Ex: body temperature, water content in cells
At the Bell Assignment Complete in Notes 1. All living things maintain a balance within their environment through the process of A. developmentB. growth C. evolutionD. homeostasis 2. When you use a microscope to examine a specimen more clearly, you are increasing A. magnificationB. resolutionC. complexity D. shape 3. The chemical process that utilizes or creates energy is called A. homeostasis B. metabolism C. photosynthesis D. development 4. The smallest building block capable of life processes is the A. cellB. tissueC. moleculeD. gene **5. Many multicellular organisms possess organ systems. These organ systems benefit multicellular organisms in much the same way that organelles benefit eukaryotic cells. Based on this, which statement best describes the function of organ systems?** A. to coordinate the function of organs in an organism B. to provide secondary functions in case an organ fails C. to perform specialized tasks for an organism D. to control what enters and leaves the organs of organism
1.1 The World Of Biology 4. Metabolism All living things require energy to carry out life functions metabolism: sum of all the chemical reactions that take in and transform energy from the environment Thought question: Where does the energy we use originate?
1.1 The World Of Biology 5. Growth and Development All living things grow and increase in size through division and enlargement of cells. cell division: formation of two new cells from en existing cell Specialized cells develop to carry out specific functions Ex. red blood cells carry oxygen
1.1 The World Of Biology 6. Reproduction a. DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid; contains all biological instructions required for life (the library) b. gene: a short segment of DNA that contains instructions for a specific trait (a book in the library)
1.1 The World Of Biology 6. Reproduction C. sexual reproduction: gametes from two parents unite D. asexual reproduction: does not involve the union of gametes, produces genetically identical offspring
1.1 The World Of Biology 7. Change Through Time Organisms experience changes during their lifetime but basic genetic characteristics remain the same. Change over millions of years on a population scale = evolution
1.2 Themes in Biology Domain, pg. 10 Fig. 1-5: 1. Bacteria 2. Archaea bacteria and archaea much less complex than eukarya 3. Eukarya
At the Bell Assignment Complete in Notes 1. When you use a microscope to examine a specimen more clearly, you are increasing A. magnificationB. resolutionC. complexity D. shape 2. The process by which individuals better suited for the environment survive and successfully reproduce is A. evolutionB. natural selectionC. artificial selection D. shaping 3. Communities of living species and their physical environments A. habitat B. ecosystem C. community D. ecology 4. Plants and animals are classified in the domain A. protistsB. eukaryaC. archaeaD. bacteria 5. The three domains of life are eukarya, archaea, and animalia. TRUE or FALSE
1.2 Themes in Biology Domains: Eukarya 1. animals 2. fungi 3. plants 4. protists Archaea 1. archaea Bacteria 1. bacteria Every organism across domains share one major thing in common: the genetic code - all life is governed by DNA
Interdependence of Organisms The living world brings all organisms together in an interactive relationship. ecology: branch of Biology that studies organisms interacting with each other and the environment - good chance you’ve used air or water that was once in the body of a dinosaur ecosystem: communities of living things and their physical environments
Evolution of Life Evolution takes place over incredibly long periods of time (thousands or millions of years) - humans did not always exist in the way they do now evolution: process by which inherited characteristics within a population change over generations - descent with modification (What does this mean?) natural selection: certain favorable traits are better suited for an environment which allows certain organisms the chance to reproduce and pass on their genes - Adaptations are traits that favor survival in a particular environment.
1.4: Tools and Techniques Scientists use many kinds of tools to study the world around them. compound light microscope: we use these in lab; shines light through a specimen which is then magnified scanning electron microscope (SEM): we don’t use these in lab; passes a beam of electrons over the specimen and provides a detailed 3D image transmission electron microscope (TEM): passes a beam of electrons through a specimen which are captured by magnetic lenses