List six unifying themes of biology. Explain how organisms get the energy they need to survive. Describe the main difference between the structure of a living thing and that of a nonliving thing. List six characteristics of life Describe the hierarchy in nature from atoms to biosphere
Earth is currently theorized to be over 4 billion years old The first living organisms were single-celled, unicellular organisms-bacteria Unicellular organism later evolved over time to form the diverse life that now exists on Earth today-over 2.5 million different species and yet many more to be classified
Biology studies: the microscopic structure of cells which are the basic unit of life The interactions between millions of species- ecology The history of life on earth-evolution
homeostasis All living organisms need to maintain a stable internal environment-this is known as homeostasis organisms-unicellular and multicellular Internal conditions such as food, water and temperature must be controlled to survive. This is true for all living organisms-unicellular and multicellular
Cells are the basic unit life - all living organisms are made up of cells All cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane, contain DNA, ribosomes and cytoplasm-we will learn about all of these Living organisms can be unicellular such as bacteria and protists or multicellular like plants, fungi and animals prokaryotes eukaryotes All living organisms are classified as prokaryotes (bacteria) or eukaryotes (all other living organisms)
Reproduction – the process by which organisms produce new organisms like themselves. DNA – hereditary information. Deoxyribonucleic Acid. In eukaryotic organisms, DNA is enclosed within a structure of membrane. In prokaryotic organisms, DNA exists as a loop- Gene – short segment of DNA. Contains the instructions for development of a single trait. The DNA in every cell in your body is exactly identical.
Evolution – change over generations. Natural Selection – organisms with more favorable traits will be more successful at reproduction. Driven by competition for resources
Ecology – the interactions of organisms between one another and their environment. Ecosystem – is the environmental community
Photosynthesis – the process by which plants capture energy from the sun and convert it to chemical food. Autotrophs – organisms that make their own food. Heterotrophs – organisms that get food from the outside environment.
All living organisms need energy to survive. Living organisms use different processes to acquire energy- ATP Plants use photosynthesis to produce their energy- autotrophs Animals depend on other organisms for their energy- heterotrophs
To be considered a living organism you must possess these characteristics we will refer to as GRROUCH: GROW GROW-all living organisms grow and develop RESPOND RESPOND- living organisms need to respond to stimuli to survive REPRODUCE REPRODUCE-living organisms reproduce to produce offspring ORGANIZED ORGANIZED-living organisms are organized matter from atoms to cells to body systems USEENERGY metabolize USE ENERGY-living organisms need to metabolize energy (ATP) CELLS CELLS-all living organisms are composed of one or more cells HOMEOSTASIS HOMEOSTASIS-all living organisms must maintain a stable internal environment to survive