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CHAPTER ONE The Science of Life Biology The study of life Characteristics of Life  Organization  Cells  Response to Stimuli  Homeostasis  Metabolism.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER ONE The Science of Life Biology The study of life Characteristics of Life  Organization  Cells  Response to Stimuli  Homeostasis  Metabolism."— Presentation transcript:


2 CHAPTER ONE The Science of Life

3 Biology The study of life Characteristics of Life  Organization  Cells  Response to Stimuli  Homeostasis  Metabolism  Growth and Development  Reproduction  Change Through Time

4 Organization and Cells Organization is the high degree of order within an organism’s internal and external parts and in its interactions with the living world. All living organisms, whether made up of one cell or many cells, have some degree of organization. artworkowls.php

5 Organization and Cells: Little to Big Atoms are the simplest particle of an element that retains all the properties of a certain element.

6 Organization and Cells: Little to Big Biological molecules are the chemical compounds that provide physical structure and bring about movement, energy use, and other cellular functions. Biological molecules are made up of atoms.

7 Organization and Cells: Little to Big Organelles are tiny structures that carry out functions necessary for the cell to stay alive. They contain biological molecules.

8 Organization and Cells: Little to Big Cells are the smallest unit that can perform all life’s processes. A cell must be covered by a membrane, contain all genetic information necessary for replication, and be able to carry out all cell functions.

9 Organization and Cells: Little to Big Tissues are groups of cells that have similar abilities and that perform a specific function. Tissues are made up of cells.

10 Organization and Cells: Little to Big Organs are structures that carry out specialized jobs within an organ system. All organs are made up of tissues.


12 Response to Stimuli A characteristic of life is that an organism can respond to a stimulus- a physical or chemical change in the internal or external environment. The organism responds and reacts to changes in their environment to stay alive.

13 Homeostasis Metabolism The maintenance of a stable level of internal conditions even though environmental conditions are constantly changing. The sum of all the chemical reactions that take in and transform energy and materials from the environment. Homeostasis & Metabolism

14 Growth and Development Unicellular life grows by cell enlargement. Multicellular life grows by cell division, cell enlargement, and development. Development: becoming a mature adult; involves cell division and cell specialization. 10 day old chicken embryo

15 Reproduction Reproduction is a process of making offspring by transmitting hereditary information contained in genes. Genes are short segments of DNA that contain the instructions for a single trait.

16 Change Through Time Populations of organisms evolve or change through time.

17 Living? Virus

18 A nonliving particle made up of nucleic acid and a protein coat or nucleic acid and a lipid- protein coat.

19 Characteristics of Viruses Do NOT have cytoplasm or organelles Cannot carry out cellular function such as metabolism and homeostasis Cannot reproduce outside their host cell

20 Characteristics of Viruses continued Obligate intracellular parasites


22 Diversity and Unity of Life Diversity, or variety, of life- what’s the big deal? If life is so diverse, how can it also be characterized by unity? Three main domains:  Bacteria, archea, eukarya Kingdoms:  Animalia, plantae, fungi, protista, archaea, & bacteria

23 Interdependence of Organisms Ecology studies organisms interacting with each other and with the environment. Ecosystems are communities of living species and their physical environments.

24 Evolution of Life Populations of living organisms change through time, or evolve. Evolution is the process in which the inherited characteristics within populations change over generations. Natural selection: the process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment survive and reproduce more successfully than less well adapted individuals do Adaptations are traits that improve an individual’s ability to survive and reproduce.

25 THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD Science as a Process


27 Steps of the Scientific Method 1. Observation: the act of perceiving a natural occurrence 2. Forming a Hypothesis 1. A statement that explains observations and data and can be tested 3. Test Hypothesis 1. Experimenting -Control group vs Experimental group 2. Independent variable vs dependent variable 4. Record and Study Data

28 Steps of the Scientific Method 5. Write a conclusion  Was the hypothesis correct or not?  Model – a representation of an object, a system, or a process that helps to show relationships among data.  Inferring – making a conclusion on the basis of facts or premises rather than on direct observations. Ex: Where there’s smoke there’s fire  Theory – a broad and comprehensive statement of what is thought to be true. It is supported by considerable evidence.


30 USING THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD REQUIRES THAT ONE BE A GOOD OBSERVER. observationinference involves a judgment or assumption uses the five senses

31 Designing an Experiment control group: provides a normal standard against which to compare the results of the experimental group experimental group: identical to the control group except for one factor, the independent variable independent variable: manipulated variable dependent variable: responding variable; it is affected by the independent variable

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