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1. Fundamentals of Public Administration MPA - 406 FACILITATOR Prof. Dr. Mohammad Majid Mahmood.

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Presentation on theme: "1. Fundamentals of Public Administration MPA - 406 FACILITATOR Prof. Dr. Mohammad Majid Mahmood."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Fundamentals of Public Administration MPA FACILITATOR Prof. Dr. Mohammad Majid Mahmood

3 Reflections 3 Constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan 1973  Some of the Articles pertaining to Human Dignity & Respect given in Constitution of Pakistan are as follows:-  Freedom of Association:  Freedom of Trade, Business or Profession:  Freedom of Speech, etc:  Safeguard as to Educational Institution in respect of Religion, etc.:  Equality of Citizens:  Non-discrimination in respect of access to Public Places:

4 Reflections 4 Constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan 1973  Some of the Articles pertaining to Human Dignity & Respect given in Constitution of Pakistan are as follows:-  Security of persons:  Safeguards as to arrest and detention:  Slavery, forced labor, etc. prohibited:  Sacredness of Dignity of Man, etc.:  Freedom of Movement, etc.:  Freedom of Assembly:

5 Classical School  The main contributors of Classical School are:  Woodrow Wilson  Leonard D. White  W. F. Willoughby  Fredrick Winslow Taylor  Henry L. Gantt  Frank and Lillian Gilbreth 5 Reflections

6 Max Weber ( ) Max Weber was a lawyer who got interested in the social aspects of organizations. During his time, markets were booming and his life long work on the study of organizations led to believe that specific kind of organizations called “bureau” (desk), will help in the growth of markets. Max Weber gave following main characteristics of the Bureaucracy. General Characteristics of Bureaucracy: Hierarchy of authority Impersonality Written rules and documents Promotion based on achievement Specialized division of labor Efficiency Classical School 6

7 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BUREAUCRACY Hierarchy of Authority Hierarchy is the various levels in the Organization. Authority Authority is the ability to exercise influence over a group of people. Weber distinguished three main Types of Authority: 1. Traditional Authority: The authority that one inherits, e.g. the son of king will be the future king. In traditional societies, the authority is transmitted. 2. Charismatic: It is the authority that one possesses because of one’s personal traits and abilities. E.g. TV artist, sports stars. 3. Rational-legal Authority: It is the authority that is acquired as a result of a position. E.g. Policeman has authority because of the position. One may posses a mix of these above authorities. Classical School 7

8 Impersonality The official is provided all equipment to carry out his duties; he does not own the "means of administration." Activities are completed impersonally, which means that the ‘self’ of individual is not involved in the work. Written Rules and Documents Bureaucracy demands that the written rules of the organization be strictly followed and that the officials remain loyal. All the work in organization is written. Compliance is to the written instructions. Promotion Based on Achievement Bureaucracy requires the tasks assigned to an official performed and completed in an efficient and effective manner, and promotion is based on the level of skill and ability of the official. Classical School GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BUREAUCRACY 8

9 Specialization/ Division of Labor Each person should perform a given and assigned task. Example: 1. A person assigned the task of typing should only perform that task. He should not be asked to do other task. If he/she continues to perform the task he/she will develop competence in that area. 2. Pin Making: Another example is of pin making given by Adam Smith. If the pin is made by one person he will take longer. But if the wire is straightened by one person, the other person cuts the wire and the third person rounds the head of the pin, then the output can be increased due to specialization. Efficiency: Achieving maximum output with minimum input. Classical School GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BUREAUCRACY 9

10 Henri Fayol: Henri Fayol is called the Father of Modern Management Theory. He was a French Industrialist. His book on ‘General Administration’ appeared in It was written in French. Fayol found that activities of industrial undertaking could be grouped in 5 parts namely: 1. Production 2. Commercial 3. Financial 4. Security (protection of property) 5. Managerial Classical School 10

11 General Principles of Management Henri Fayol gave following 14 General Principles of Management: 1. Division of work 2. Authority & Responsibility 3. Discipline: respect for agreement 4. Unity of command: receive order from one superior only. 5. Unity of direction: each group of activities with same objectives must have one head and one plan. 6. Subordination of individual interests to the general interest: The managers should work in the interests of organization. 7. Remuneration: methods of payment should be fair and give maximum satisfaction to employee and employer Classical School 11

12 General Principles of Management 8. Centralization: The extent to which the authority is concentrated in one person or dispersed in the organization 9. Scalar chain (line of authority) or chain of command 10. Order: a place for everyone and every thing in its place 11. Equity: justice and fairness on the part of managers 12. Stability of tenure of personnel 13. Initiative: keenness to work 14. Esprit de corps: union is strength (teamwork) Classical School 12

13 Thank you for your kind attention! Thank you for your kind attention! FACILITATOR Prof. Dr. Mohammad Majid Mahmood 13


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