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2 Unit -1 Concept of Management

3 Definition of Management
“Management is the art of getting things done through and with people in formally organized groups”. “Management is the process by which managers create, direct, maintain and operate purposive organizations through systematic, coordinated, cooperative human effort”.

4 Meaning of Management Management of Ideas Management of Things
Management of People

5 Concepts of Management
Management as an Economic Resource Management as a Group Management as a System of Authority Management as a Separate Discipline Management as a Process Management is a social process Managements is an integrating process Managements is a continuous process Management as an Activity Informational activities Decisional activities Interpersonal activities

6 Importance of Management
Effective Utilization of Resources Development of Resources To Incorporate Innovations Integrating Various Interest Groups Stability in the Society Working for society Working for people For overall growth & development

7 Characteristics of Management
Management is a Universal Process Management is Purposeful Management is Creative Management is an Integrative Force Management is a Group Phenomenon Management is a Social Process Management is Multidisciplinary Management is Continuous Process Management is Intangible Management is Both a Science and an Art

8 Management as Science Science may be viewed in terms of its structure, its goals, and its methods. In terms of its structure, it is a number of scientific disciplines: physics, biology, psychology, economics, management and many others.

9 Management as Art The process of management does involve the use of know-how and skills like any other art such as music, painting, sculpture, etc. The process of management is directed to achieve certain concrete results as other fields of art do. Management is creative like any other art.

10 Levels of Management Departmental Divisional Heads
Board Chief Executive Departmental Divisional Heads Plant Superintendent Branch Managers Foreman Supervisors Top Management Upper Middle Management Middle Management Operating Management

11 Skills of management Technical Skill Human Skill Conceptual Skill

12 Importance of management
Growing size and complexity of business Increasing specialization of work Cut throat competition in the market Growing unionization of labour Sophisticated and capital intensive technology. Increasing complexity of business decisions Growing regulation of business by the Government Need for research and development Turbulent environment of business Need for reconciling the interests of various groups, e.g, owners, workers, customers and the public Need for optimum utilization of scarce resources.

13 Managing in present completive environment
Knowledge Skills to performance Environment awareness Competitiveness Vision

14 Taylor Scientific management
Separation of Planning and Doing Functional Foremanship Job Analysis Standardization Scientific Selection and Training of Workers Financial Incentives Economy Mental Revolution

15 Principles of Scientific Management
Replacing Rule of Thumb with Science Harmony in Group Action Cooperation Maximum Output Development of Workers

16 Fayol General Principles of management
Division of Work Authority and Responsibility Discipline Unity of Command Unity of Direction Subordination of Individual to General Interest Remuneration of Personnel Centralization Scalar Chain Order Equity Stability of Tenure of Personnel Initiative Esprit de Corps

17 Bureaucratic management
Traditional Authority Charismatic Authority Rational-legal Authority

18 Features of bureaucracy
A set of written rules and work procedures Specialization Hierarchy of Authority Impersonal Relations Trained Personnel Organizational freedom

19 Behavioral approach The 1920s was turning decade in the development of management thought because the individualistic concern of the classical approach began to give way to ‘group philosophy’ and social attitudes.

20 Hawthorne experiments
The test room study Relay Assembly Room Study Mass Interviewing Programme Bank wiring observation Room study

21 Implications of Hawthorne experiment
Social Factors in Output Group Influence Conflict Leadership Supervision Communication

22 Management science approach
Management is regarded as the problem-solving mechanism with the help of mathematical tools and techniques. Management problems cab be described in terms of mathematical symbols and data. This approach covers decision-making, system analysis, and some aspects of human behaviour. Operations research, mathematical tools, simulation, models, etc., are the basic methodologies to solve managerial problems.

23 Human behavior approach
People do not dislike work. If they have been helped to establish objectives, they will want to achieve them. Most people can exercise a great deal of self-direction, self-control, and creativity than are required in their current job. The manager’s basis job is to use the untapped human potential in the service of the organization. The manager should create a healthy environment wherein all subordinates can contribute to the best of their capacity. The manager should provide for self-direction by subordinates and they must be encouraged to participate fully in all important matters. Operating efficiency cab be improved by expanding subordinate influence, self-direction, and self control. Work satisfaction may improve as a ‘by-product’ of subordinates making full use of their potential.

24 Systems approach Perhaps systems approach has attracted the maximum attention of thinkers in management particularly in the present era. Though this approach is of comparatively recent origin, starting late 1960, it has assumed considerable importance in analyzing the phenomena of management.

25 Contingency approach A review of the earlier schools of management helps us to place the current approach to management in perspective. The performance results of the management process school’s universalist assumptions were generally disapproving.



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