3Definition of Management “Management is the art of getting things done through and with people in formally organized groups”.“Management is the process by which managers create, direct, maintain and operate purposive organizations through systematic, coordinated, cooperative human effort”.
4Meaning of Management Management of Ideas Management of Things Management of People
5Concepts of Management Management as an Economic ResourceManagement as a GroupManagement as a System of AuthorityManagement as a Separate DisciplineManagement as a ProcessManagement is a social processManagements is an integrating processManagements is a continuous processManagement as an ActivityInformational activitiesDecisional activitiesInterpersonal activities
6Importance of Management Effective Utilization of ResourcesDevelopment of ResourcesTo Incorporate InnovationsIntegrating Various Interest GroupsStability in the SocietyWorking for societyWorking for peopleFor overall growth & development
7Characteristics of Management Management is a Universal ProcessManagement is PurposefulManagement is CreativeManagement is an Integrative ForceManagement is a Group PhenomenonManagement is a Social ProcessManagement is MultidisciplinaryManagement is Continuous ProcessManagement is IntangibleManagement is Both a Science and an Art
8Management as ScienceScience may be viewed in terms of its structure, its goals, and its methods. In terms of its structure, it is a number of scientific disciplines: physics, biology, psychology, economics, management and many others.
9Management as ArtThe process of management does involve the use of know-how and skills like any other art such as music, painting, sculpture, etc.The process of management is directed to achieve certain concrete results as other fields of art do.Management is creative like any other art.
11Skills of managementTechnical SkillHuman SkillConceptual Skill
12Importance of management Growing size and complexity of businessIncreasing specialization of workCut throat competition in the marketGrowing unionization of labourSophisticated and capital intensive technology.Increasing complexity of business decisionsGrowing regulation of business by the GovernmentNeed for research and developmentTurbulent environment of businessNeed for reconciling the interests of various groups, e.g, owners, workers, customers and the publicNeed for optimum utilization of scarce resources.
13Managing in present completive environment KnowledgeSkills to performanceEnvironment awarenessCompetitivenessVision
14Taylor Scientific management Separation of Planning and DoingFunctional ForemanshipJob AnalysisStandardizationScientific Selection and Training of WorkersFinancial IncentivesEconomyMental Revolution
15Principles of Scientific Management Replacing Rule of Thumb with ScienceHarmony in Group ActionCooperationMaximum OutputDevelopment of Workers
16Fayol General Principles of management Division of WorkAuthority and ResponsibilityDisciplineUnity of CommandUnity of DirectionSubordination of Individual to General InterestRemuneration of PersonnelCentralizationScalar ChainOrderEquityStability of Tenure of PersonnelInitiativeEsprit de Corps
17Bureaucratic management Traditional AuthorityCharismatic AuthorityRational-legal Authority
18Features of bureaucracy A set of written rules and work proceduresSpecializationHierarchy of AuthorityImpersonal RelationsTrained PersonnelOrganizational freedom
19Behavioral approachThe 1920s was turning decade in the development of management thought because the individualistic concern of the classical approach began to give way to ‘group philosophy’ and social attitudes.
20Hawthorne experiments The test room studyRelay Assembly Room StudyMass Interviewing ProgrammeBank wiring observation Room study
21Implications of Hawthorne experiment Social Factors in OutputGroup InfluenceConflictLeadershipSupervisionCommunication
22Management science approach Management is regarded as the problem-solving mechanism with the help of mathematical tools and techniques.Management problems cab be described in terms of mathematical symbols and data.This approach covers decision-making, system analysis, and some aspects of human behaviour.Operations research, mathematical tools, simulation, models, etc., are the basic methodologies to solve managerial problems.
23Human behavior approach People do not dislike work. If they have been helped to establish objectives, they will want to achieve them.Most people can exercise a great deal of self-direction, self-control, and creativity than are required in their current job.The manager’s basis job is to use the untapped human potential in the service of the organization.The manager should create a healthy environment wherein all subordinates can contribute to the best of their capacity.The manager should provide for self-direction by subordinates and they must be encouraged to participate fully in all important matters.Operating efficiency cab be improved by expanding subordinate influence, self-direction, and self control.Work satisfaction may improve as a ‘by-product’ of subordinates making full use of their potential.
24Systems approachPerhaps systems approach has attracted the maximum attention of thinkers in management particularly in the present era. Though this approach is of comparatively recent origin, starting late 1960, it has assumed considerable importance in analyzing the phenomena of management.
25Contingency approachA review of the earlier schools of management helps us to place the current approach to management in perspective. The performance results of the management process school’s universalist assumptions were generally disapproving.