Mapping Political Contexts Civil Society Index (CIVICUS) Country Policy & Institutional Assessment (World Bank) Democracy and Governance Assessment (USAID) Drivers of Change (DFID) Governance Questionnaire (GTZ) Governance Matters (World Bank Institute) Power Analysis (Sida) World Governance Assessment
Merilee Grindles Approach 1.Identify the policy reform – the decision to be made 2.Political Interests Map – the actors and politics 3.Institutional Contexts Map – the organisations and processes involved 4.Circle of influence graphic – supporters and opponents and their power 5.Policy process Matrix – what needs to be done when 6.Communications Strategy
The RAPID Approach 1.Identify the policy issue 2.Identify the key actors (individuals) & produce an influence map 3.Identify the key actors (organisations) and processes & produce a policy process map 4.Identify the key individuals in key processes & what they need to make a decision 5.Identify the research/evidence that is needed
An Exercise 1.Identify 1 or 2 Policy Issues 2.Identify the key actors (individuals) & produce an influence map 3.Identify the key actors (organisations) and processes & produce a policy process map 4.Identify the key individuals in key processes & what they need to make a decision 5.Identify the research/evidence that is needed
What is it? an integrated PM&E tool a system to think holistically & strategically about how we intend to achieve result an approach that focuses on changes in the behaviour, relationships or actions of partners (as outcomes) a methodology that characterizes and assesses the programs contributions to the achievement of outcomes an approach for designing in relation to the broader development context but assessing within your sphere of influence
Terminology Outcomes: changes in behaviours, relationships, activities and/or actions of the people, groups and organisations with whom we work Vision: the broad human, social and environmental betterment we desire Mission: how we intend to contribute towards the achievement of the vision Boundary partners: individuals, groups and organisations with whom we interact directly to effect change Outcome challenges: changes behaviours of the boundary partners as identified by the vision
Main Elements OUTCOME MAPPING: Building Learning and Reflection into Development Programs Sarah Earl, Fred Carden, and Terry Smutylo http://www.idrc.ca/en/ev-9330-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html
Exercise 1.Identify Vision (changed behaviour) 2.Identify key actors and boundary partners 3.What are they doing now? 4.How does it need to change? 5.What are the steps? 6.What can be done to help them make the changes? 7.How will you measure the change?
Communications Toolkit Planning Tools –Stakeholder Analysis –Social Network Analysis –Problem Tree Analysis –Force Field Analysis –National Systems of Innovation (NSI) –How to Write a Communications Strategy Packaging Tools Targeting Tools Monitoring Tools Key skill: to understand
What does to understand mean? UNAIDS (1999): Government Socio-economic status Culture Gender Spirituality
Communications Toolkit Planning Tools Packaging Tools –Visioning Scenarios: Show the Future –Tell a Story –Provide a Solution –Use Surprise –Be Persuasive Targeting Tools Monitoring Tools Key skill: to inspire
What does to inspire mean? Dagron (2001): We have come to appreciate the true power of face-to-face and voice-to-voice communication. Every meaningful lesson or belief Ive garnered in life came from someone I value explaining the issue to me and involving me in the process of figuring out the solution. (Preface by Gray-Felder)
What does it mean to inform? HCP (2003): Most young people in Windhoek believe that abstinence means to be absent Lambert (2001): Among a group of women in India, sex could only be discussed in whispers Senior policymaker: I dont have time to learn
KM & Learning for Policy Impact ODI work on KM: Literature review Developing KM in ODI Review of KM in Development Agencies Advisory work KM Toolkit
What is KM & Learning? … keeping track of people who know the recipe…. …every time we do something again we should do it better than the last time… Goals Results Activities Learn during Learn after Learn before External networks; Colleagues; Information assets; Own knowledge
Different learning styles… Reflector Theorist Activist Pragmatist
Different forms of knowledge Start Has it been articulated? Can it been articulated? ExplicitTacit Implicit YN Y N
Tools for different processes Different tools are good for different processes: –Creation of knowledge –Mapping and identifying knowledge –Sharing knowledge –Managing and storing knowledge –Learning
KM Toolkit Strategy Development Management Techniques Collaboration Mechanisms Knowledge Sharing and Learning Processes Knowledge Capture and Storage
KM Toolkit Strategy Development –The Five Competencies Framework –Knowledge Audit –Social Network Analysis –Most Significant Change –Outcome Mapping –Scenario Testing and Visioning Management Techniques Collaboration Mechanisms Knowledge Sharing and Learning Processes Knowledge Capture and Storage
KM Toolkit Strategy Development Management Techniques –The SECI Approach –Blame vs Gain Behaviours –Force Field Analysis –Activity-based Knowledge Mapping –Structured Innovation –Reframing Matrix Collaboration Mechanisms Knowledge Sharing and Learning Processes Knowledge Capture and Storage
KM Toolkit Strategy Development Management Techniques Collaboration Mechanisms –Teams: Virtual and Face-to- Face –Communities of Practice –Action Learning Sets –Six Thinking Hats –Mind Maps –Social Technologies Knowledge Sharing and Learning Processes Knowledge Capture and Storage
KM Toolkit Strategy Development Management Techniques Collaboration Mechanisms Knowledge Sharing and Learning Processes –Stories –Peer Assists –Challenge Sessions –After Action Reviews and Retrospects –Intranet Strategies –Email Guidelines Knowledge Capture and Storage
KM Toolkit Strategy Development Management Techniques Collaboration Mechanisms Knowledge Sharing and Learning Processes Knowledge Capture and Storage –Taxonomies for Documents and Folders –Exit Interviews –How To Guides –Staff Profile Pages –Blogs –Shared Network Drives
Starts with the attitude that someone has probably already done what I am about to do. I wonder who? Learning before: Peer Assist
A peer assist is a meeting or workshop where people are invited from other groups and organisations to share their experience, insights and knowledge with a team who have requested some help early on in a piece of work Peer Assist targets a specific technical or commercial challenge; gains assistance and insights from people outside the team; identifies possible approaches and new lines of inquiry; promotes sharing of learning with each other; and develops strong networks amongst people involved
Peer Assist What you know in your context What I know in my context "...the politics accompanying hierarchies hampers the free exchange of knowledge. People are much more open with their peers. They are much more willing to share and to listen What we both know Whats possible? Action Multiplying Knowledge
Stories of change 1. Situation 2. A change or challenge 3. Action 4. Result 5. Lesson Learning During: Stories
An after action review asks 4 simple questions: 15 minute team debrief, conducted in a rank-free environment. Learning after: AAR What was supposed to happen? What actually happened? Why was there a difference? What can we learn from it?
Knowledge Audit What are the core tasks? What do the people doing them need to know? How is the knowledge generated? How is it stored and accessed? Any problems? What are the relationships between producers and users? How could it be improved? Any leadership issues? Any incentive problems?
Exercise 2 – A Knowledge Audit How is the knowledge generated? How is it stored and accessed? How is it used? Any problems? How could it be improved?
Further Information Mapping Political Context: A Toolkit for Civil Society Organisations. Robert Nash, Alan Hudson and Cecilia Luttrell Tools for Knowledge and Learning: A guide for development and humanitarian organisations. Ben Ramalingam A Toolkit for Progressive Policymakers in Developing Countries. Sophie Sutcliffe and Julius Court Successful Communication: A Toolkit for Researchers and Civil Society Organisations Ingie Hovland, Tools for Policy Impact: A Handbook for Researchers Daniel Start and Ingie Hovland