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1 John Young: ODI, London firstname.lastname@example.org Making Knowledge Count Maximising the value of Research for DevelopmentJohn Young: ODI, London
3 Policy Process Mapping Workshop Session 1.1Policy Process Mapping
4 Mapping Political Contexts Civil Society Index (CIVICUS)Country Policy & Institutional Assessment (World Bank)Democracy and Governance Assessment (USAID)Drivers of Change (DFID)Governance Questionnaire (GTZ)Governance Matters (World Bank Institute)Power Analysis (Sida)World Governance AssessmentCivil Society Index (CIVICUS): Civil society's structure, impact, environment and valuesCountry Policy and Institutional Assessment (World Bank): Governance institutions, policies, economic managementDemocracy and Governance Assessment (USAID): Players, interests, resources, objectives, rules, institutional arenasDrivers of Change (DFID): Structure, agents, institutionsGovernance Questionnaire (GTZ): State-society relations, political system, political culture, politics and gender, economic policy and political framework of markets, international integrationGovernance Matters (World Bank Institute): Voice and accountability, political stability and absence of violence, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, rule of law, control of corruptionPower Analysis (Sida): Power and its distributionWorld Governance Assessment: Participation, decency, fairness, accountability, transparency, efficiency
5 Merilee Grindle’s Approach Identify the policy reform – the decision to be madePolitical Interests Map – the actors and “politics”Institutional Contexts Map – the organisations and processes involvedCircle of influence graphic – supporters and opponents and their powerPolicy process Matrix – what needs to be done whenMerilee Grindle, Professor of International Development at Harvard University has her students carry out an exercise in developing a strategy for promoting policy reform. Mapping political context is an important element of the approach.The starting point is a clear statement of the policy reform being pursued.A second component is the production of “political interests map”, which addresses the following issues: i) Actors in policy area; ii) Priority of policy area for actor; iii) Actors’ reasons for exerting influence in policy area; iv) Actors’ resources for influencing policy outcomes in policy area; v) Degree of influence in policy area; vi) Actual and potential alliances among actors.A third component is the systematic analysis of the institutional contexts for policy reform, considering for each relevant organisational or inter-organisational arena: i) What actors have access to this arena or forum for policy discussion?; ii) What ‘rules of the game’ within the arena are particularly relevant to the intended policy reform; iii) What resources of power/influence are relevant in this arena?; iv) How important is this arena to the outcome of your policy reform?A fourth component is to produce a circle of influence graphic which shows the position (opposition, support or undecided) of various players in relation to the proposed reform, and their capacity to influence.A fifth component is to complete a policy process matrix to assess, for each stage of the policy process, what needs to be done to ensure the survival of the proposal for policy reform. NB: Steps four and five are about developing an influencing strategy which builds on the mapping of political context, rather than being about mapping political context.In addition to these five context mapping components, Professor Grindle asks her students to develop a communications strategy, thinking carefully about the goal of such a strategy, its audience, and its key messages.Communications Strategy
6 The RAPID Approach Identify the policy issue Identify the key actors (individuals) & produce an influence mapIdentify the key actors (organisations) and processes & produce a policy process mapIdentify the key individuals in key processes & what they need to make a decisionIdentify the research/evidence that is needed
8 An Exercise Identify 1 or 2 Policy Issues Identify the key actors (individuals) & produce an influence mapIdentify the key actors (organisations) and processes & produce a policy process mapIdentify the key individuals in key processes & what they need to make a decisionIdentify the research/evidence that is needed
10 What is it? an integrated PM&E tool a system to think holistically & strategically about how we intend to achieve resultan approach that focuses on changes in the behaviour, relationships or actions of partners (as outcomes)a methodology that characterizes and assesses the program’s contributions to the achievement of outcomesan approach for designing in relation to the broader development context but assessing within your sphere of influence
12 TerminologyOutcomes: changes in behaviours, relationships, activities and/or actions of the people, groups and organisations with whom we workVision: the broad human, social and environmental betterment we desireMission: how we intend to contribute towards the achievement of the visionBoundary partners: individuals, groups and organisations with whom we interact directly to effect changeOutcome challenges: changes behaviours of the boundary partners as identified by the vision
14 Main ElementsOUTCOME MAPPING: Building Learning and Reflection into Development Programs Sarah Earl, Fred Carden, and Terry Smutylo
15 Exercise Identify Vision (changed behaviour) Identify key actors and boundary partnersWhat are they doing now?How does it need to change?What are the steps?What can be done to help them make the changes?How will you measure the change?
17 Why communicate? To disseminate our research results To provide informationTo aid our research processTo engage with specific groupsTo facilitate (public) discussionTo lead to changeLet’s start with the basic question: Why do we wish to communicate? If we have thought about this question, then it’s easier to choose the tools that are most appropriate to our aims.People and organisations communicate for a variety of different reasons. Here are some examples of possible reasons.They range from the wish to disseminate results, which can be done in quite a simple and straightforward way (e.g. send out an ), to the wish ‘to lead to change’, which requires getting involved in a far more complex and multi-layered process of engagement with different groups.
18 ≠ But… more communication more change Whatever the aim of our communication, we should not just assume that ‘more’ = ‘better’. More communication will not necessarily lead to more change. This is especially the case if communication in some way is offensive to the target audience, or if it is perceived to be condescending, aggressive, irrelevant, or ‘wrong’.We need to think about the quality and strategy of our communication, and not just the quantity.
19 Communications Toolkit Planning ToolsPackaging ToolsTargeting ToolsMonitoring ToolsThe Communications Toolkit is divided into four parts: Planning, Packaging, Targeting and Monitoring.
20 Communications Toolkit Planning ToolsStakeholder AnalysisSocial Network AnalysisProblem Tree AnalysisForce Field AnalysisNational Systems of Innovation (NSI)How to Write a Communications StrategyPackaging ToolsTargeting ToolsMonitoring ToolsKey skill: to understandThe key skill linked to the first part, Planning, is to understand the situation and context of the communication.There are six tools to choose from here: Stakeholder Analysis, Social Network Analysis, Problem tree analysis, Forcefield analysis, and National Systems of Innovation. In addition we have included a section on how to write a communication strategy.My favourite of these tools is Forcefield Analysis. [Explain Forcefield analysis]
21 What does to understand mean? UNAIDS (1999):GovernmentSocio-economic statusCultureGenderSpiritualityTo give you some additional material on what it means ‘to understand’ the context, let me use the UNAIDS report “Communications Framework for HIV/AIDS: A New Direction” as an example.This report acknowledged that previous communication around AIDS had usually focused on individuals, i.e. trying to get individuals to change their behaviour. However, through a participatory research process they found that the context was just as important in changing individuals’ likelihood of contracting AIDS. They found that five contextual elements were particularly important: government policy, socioeconomic status, culture, gender relations, and spirituality. Once this understanding had been established, they were able to develop a new communications framework that actually engaged with the reality of people’s lives.[From the Communication of Research annotated bibliography:]UNAIDS (1999) “Communications framework for HIV/AIDS: A new direction”[From executive summary:] The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) responded to the increasing epidemic of HIV/AIDS by initiating a participatory research process conducted through five consultative workshops to examine the global use of communications of HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and support. The primary aim was to examine the adequacy of existing communications theories and models for HIV/AIDS in Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean against a backdrop of contemporary communications uses in Western societies. In the five consultative workshops (two global and three regional), 103 leading researchers and practitioners from different parts of the world were invited or consulted by UNAIDS in collaboration with The Pennsylvania State University.The major finding was that five domains of context are virtually universal factors in communications for HIV/AIDS preventive health behaviour: government policy, socioeconomic status, culture, gender relations, and spirituality. These interrelated domains formed the basis of a new framework that could be used as a flexible guide in the development of HIV/AIDS communications interventions. Individual health behaviour is recognized as a component of this set of domains, rather than the primary focus of health behaviour change.Most HIV/AIDS communications programmes have been aimed at achieving individual-based changes in sexual and social behaviour. While aspects of this approach are desirable and should be maintained, evidence from research and practice in many countries shows that existing approaches generally have major limitations; thus, a broader focus is needed. Moreover, there is considerable inter-regional variation in the context of HIV/AIDS. Many of the theories, models, and frameworks currently in use in the regions do not adequately address the unique needs of HIV/AIDS communications. For example, the cost effectiveness of interpersonal communication components of HIV/AIDS behavioural interventions in the regions has been underestimated. The challenge of the new direction outlined in the report is to ensure a redirection of intervention programmes to recognize that individual behaviours are shaped and influenced by factors and domains within a broader contextual focus.Author: UNAIDSPublisher: Joint United National Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and Pennsylvania State UniversityDate: 1999Full document:
22 Communications Toolkit Planning ToolsPackaging ToolsVisioning Scenarios: Show the FutureTell a StoryProvide a SolutionUse SurpriseBe PersuasiveTargeting ToolsMonitoring ToolsKey skill: to inspireThe second part of the Toolkit is about Packaging.The key skill linked to this part of the process is to be able to inspire people. They will feel inspired if they feel that the communication speaks directly to them, and we can achieve this through packaging it in the most appropriate manner.The tools in this section are: Visioning Scenarios (Show the future); Tell a story; Provide a solution; Use surprise; Be persuasive.My favourite of these tools is ‘Tell a story’. [Say why stories are important]
23 What does to inspire mean? Dagron (2001):“We have come to appreciate the true power of face-to-face and voice-to-voice communication. Every meaningful lesson or belief I’ve garnered in life came from someone I value explaining the issue to me and involving me in the process of figuring out the solution.”(Preface by Gray-Felder)To get us to think a little more deeply about what it means to inspire others, and to feel inspired, I have included a quote from the book “Making Waves”, produced by the Communication for Social Change initiative (funded by the Rockefeller Foundation).[Read out quote]This quote captures very well some of the key aspects of an inspiring communication process: the people involved feel that they are spoken to directly; they trust and value the communicator; they gain new insight when an issue is explained to them; they feel involved; and they feel that they are a part of finding the solution.[From the Communication annotated bibliography:]Dagron, Alfonso Gumucio (2001) Making Waves: Stories of Participatory Communication for Social ChangeIn this book the Rockefeller Foundation has brought together 50 stories of instances where participatory communication has led to social change, ranging from bush radios to street theatre and local telecentres. The collection forms part of the work of the Rockefeller Foundation’s Communication for Social Change initiative. In the book’s foreword, Denise Gray-Felder maps out the rationale for participatory communication in the international development field. She makes the link between communication and empowerment, arguing that these 50 case studies show how people living in poor communities across the world can potentially seize control of their own life stories and begin to change their marginal and unjust circumstances. She emphasises the power inherent in local community decision-making processes and in communal action.Reading across the 50 case studies, the Rockefeller Foundation suggests that community-based radio is perhaps the communication method par excellence when trying to reach excluded or marginalised communities in targeted ways. Radio enables a wide audience to hear about the situation of the poor in their own words. It also has the advantage of being cheaper and more accessible than video. The case studies include examples of the continued success of traditional communication methods such as drama, dance, music, puppets, drums, storytelling and dialogue circles. In all of these, person-to-person communication is crucial. As Gray-Felder says:‘We [in the Communication for Social Change programme] have come to appreciate the true power of face-to-face and voice-to-voice communication. Every meaningful lesson or belief I’ve garnered in life came from someone I value explaining the issue to me and involving me in the process of figuring out the solution.’Author:Alfonso Gumucio DagronPublisher:New York: Rockefeller FoundationDate:2001Full document:www.rockfound.org/Documents/421/makingwaves.pdf
24 Communications Toolkit Planning ToolsPackaging ToolsTargeting ToolsWriting Policy PapersBuilding a CoPLobbyingUsingWebsitesBloggingMedia EngagementRadioMonitoring ToolsKey skill: to informThe third part of the Toolkit is on Targeting, and the key skill related to this part is to be able to inform audiences in the most effective and appropriate way.The tools included in this part are: Writing policy papers; Building a community of practice; Lobbying; Using ; Websites; Blogging; Media engagement; Radio.My favourite tool from this section is Writing policy papers. [Explain what makes a good policy briefing paper]
25 What does it mean to inform? HCP (2003): Most young people in Windhoek believe that ‘abstinence’ means ‘to be absent’Lambert (2001): Among a group of women in India, sex could only be discussed in whispersSenior policymaker: “I don’t have time to learn”We may think that it’s quite straightforward to inform our audiences, but actually it’s an art. I have included three examples here of how difficult it is to inform people.The first example is from a study carried out among young people in Windhoek (in Namibia). They had been subject to public communication on AIDS for a while, emphasising the common ABC approach (abstinence, be faithful, condoms). Some researchers wanted to find out whether this communication had actually had any impact. By interviewing youths, they found out that the impact had not always been as expected. Most of the young people, for example, believed that the word ‘abstinence’ meant ‘to be absent’, and that ‘be faithful’ meant to have faith in a religious sense.The second example is from India, where a researcher found that it was almost impossible to involve women in a village in an AIDS survey, because they found it so offensive and crude to openly discuss any issues related to sexuality. Instead, the women would discuss sex when they were among other women, and they would do so through whispers, indirect allusions, and subtle body language. It proved very hard for the survey team to communicate with them.The third example is an unofficial quote from a senior policymaker, reported by one of my colleagues when he attended one of our RAPID workshops: “I don’t have time to learn”. This is true of many people in his position; they wish to be informed, but cannot afford to make more time for this than strictly necessary.These three examples highlight some of the many challenges that we face when we wish to inform people. As they show, informing is an art.
26 Communications Toolkit Planning ToolsPackaging ToolsTargeting ToolsMonitoring ToolsMost Significant Change (MSC)Outcome MappingResearcher ChecklistCFSC Integrated ModeKey skill: to learnThe final part of the Toolkit is on Monitoring, and the key skill related to this part is to learn about the strengths and weaknesses of our own communication efforts, so that we can continue to improve them.The tools in this section are: Most Significant Change; Outcome Mapping; Researcher checklist; and an Integrated Monitoring model developed by the Communication for Social Change initiative.My favourite among these tools is Outcome Mapping [say something about it]
27 What does it mean to learn? What are the indicators of success?AccessReceptionResponseUnderstandingUptakeChange in policyChange in practiceTo think a little more deeply about what it means to learn about our own communication, let me give you a list of possible indicators of success.This list covers a spectrum. At the most simple end of the spectrum, we may consider our communication to be successful if our key audience has access to it (e.g. we’ve made it available on our website). Or we may consider it to be successful if we know that the key audience has received it / has responded to it. Or we may wish for them to actually understand it, and incorporate it into their own thinking and work. Or we may wish for our communication to lead to a change in their policy, or even a change in practice.As we progress down this spectrum, it gets more and more complex to monitor and learn how our communication is doing. It is fairly easy to monitor whether our communication has been made accessible or not; but it is more complicated to assess whether our communication has led to a change in policy or practice.The more ambitious we are in the goals of our communication, the more we should invest in our learning. For example, if we wish to have an impact on policy and practice, then we should be prepared to set aside both time and resources to learn to what degree this is happening.
28 In conclusion… More communication ≠ more change Key skills: But better communication can lead to change.Key skills:to understand,to inspire,to inform, andto learn.In conclusion, more communication does not necessarily lead to more change. But better communication can lead to change. We need to develop more effective and strategic approaches to our communication, and that is what the tools in this Toolkit are meant to help with.The key skill of a communicator is not simply to send out a mass of information. Rather, the key skills that we should develop in order to become excellent communicators are to understand, to inspire, to inform and to learn.
29 Exercise Who is your key Audience? How do they like to learn? What forms of communication do you use now?What other forms of communication might be more effective?
31 KM & Learning for Policy Impact ODI work on KM:Literature reviewDeveloping KM in ODIReview of KM in Development AgenciesAdvisory workKM Toolkit
32 External networks; Colleagues; Information assets; Own knowledge What is KM & Learning?“… keeping track of people who ‘know the recipe’….“…every time we do something again we should do it better than the last time…”LearnduringGoalsActivitiesResultsLearnbeforeLearnafterExternal networks; Colleagues; Information assets; Own knowledge
33 Different learning styles… ReflectorActivistActivists are people who learn by doing. They like to involve themselves in new experiences, and will ‘try anything once’. They tend to act first and consider the consequences afterwardsReflectors learn by observing and thinking about what happened. They like to consider all the possible angles and implications before coming to a considered opinion. They spend time listening and observing, and tend to be cautious and thoughtfulTheorists like to understand the theory behind the actions. They need models, concepts and facts in order to learn. They like to analyse and synthesise, and feel uncomfortable with subjective judgementsPragmatists are keen on trying things out. They look for new ideas that can be applied to the problem in hand. They like to get on with things and tend to be impatient with open-ended discussions; they are practical, down-to-earth peopleTheoristPragmatist
34 Different forms of knowledge ImplicitYHas it been articulated?Can it been articulated?StartNTacit to tacit: Acquiring someone else’s tacit knowledge through observation, imitation and practice e.g. research methodologies, presentationsExplicit to explicit: Combining discrete pieces of explicit knowledge to form new explicit knowledge, for example, compiling data and preparing a report that analyses and synthesises these data. The report constitutes new explicit knowledge.Tacit to explicit: researchers subsequent conversion of acquired tacit knowledge into specifications or good practicesExplicit to tacit: Internalizing explicit knowledge. We acquire new tacit knowledge; specifically, they came to understand in an intuitive wayYNExplicitTacit
37 Tools for different processes Different tools are good for different processes:Creation of knowledgeMapping and identifying knowledgeSharing knowledgeManaging and storing knowledgeLearningThere are also range of processes to consider - creating, sharing, storing and using knowledge. Individuals, teams, organisations and groups of organisations engage in such processes in order to achieve positive change and realise their goals. More specifically:The mapping and creation of knowledge comprises activities associated with the entry of new knowledge into the organisational system. It includes all the transformations suggested by the ‘data to information to knowledge to wisdom’ frameworks, models of knowledge creation derived from the Knowledge Management (KM) literature (Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995) , as well as research work, participatory work, workshops, and so on.Sharing knowledge relates to the flow of knowledge from one party to another. This includes the diverse tools used for translation, conversion, filtering and two-way communication.Storing knowledge relates to the preservation of knowledge, allowing it to remain within the organisational system, and to those activities that help to maintain the viability of this system. These include intranets, search engines, content management systems (CMSs), electronic publishing systems, workflow systems, groupware, help desk applications, as well as more fundamental systems such as personal and group filing, project archiving, and so on.Finally, the use of knowledge relates to its application in organisational policy and practice. This involves taking and shaping decisions, making informed actions and modifying behaviours in order to achieve goals. In the case of all organisations, certain decisions, actions and behaviours have become embedded in the form of processes, procedures, rules, instructions and standards. It is perhaps one of the few truisms in this area that all such elements of organisational life were, at some point, specialist tacit knowledge or know-how, which was then converted to explicit forms in order to enable application by non-specialists. Also included in this category is the development of such tools as task performance measurement and coordination patterns, interaction guidelines and process specifications (ODI, 2003; ODI, 2004a; ODI, 2004b; US Knowledge Forum, 1999).Various tools may be used to facilitate these knowledge activities, ranging from information management (IM) systems through structured learning activities, to comprehensive M&E processes. The different types of activities and the different forms of knowledge can be brought together in a simple, easy to understand format as shown in Figure 1 (ODI, 2005).
38 KM Toolkit Strategy Development Management Techniques Collaboration MechanismsKnowledge Sharing and Learning ProcessesKnowledge Capture and Storage
39 KM Toolkit Strategy Development Management Techniques The Five Competencies FrameworkKnowledge AuditSocial Network AnalysisMost Significant ChangeOutcome MappingScenario Testing and VisioningManagement TechniquesCollaboration MechanismsKnowledge Sharing and Learning ProcessesKnowledge Capture and Storage
40 KM Toolkit Strategy Development Management Techniques The SECI ApproachBlame vs Gain BehavioursForce Field AnalysisActivity-based Knowledge MappingStructured InnovationReframing MatrixCollaboration MechanismsKnowledge Sharing and Learning ProcessesKnowledge Capture and Storage
41 KM Toolkit Strategy Development Management Techniques Collaboration MechanismsTeams: Virtual and Face-to-FaceCommunities of PracticeAction Learning SetsSix Thinking HatsMind MapsSocial TechnologiesKnowledge Sharing and Learning ProcessesKnowledge Capture and Storage
42 KM Toolkit Strategy Development Management Techniques Collaboration MechanismsKnowledge Sharing and Learning ProcessesStoriesPeer AssistsChallenge SessionsAfter Action Reviews and RetrospectsIntranet StrategiesGuidelinesKnowledge Capture and Storage
43 KM Toolkit Strategy Development Management Techniques Collaboration MechanismsKnowledge Sharing and Learning ProcessesKnowledge Capture and StorageTaxonomies for Documents and FoldersExit InterviewsHow To GuidesStaff Profile PagesBlogsShared Network Drives
44 Learning before: Peer Assist Starts with the attitude that someone has probably already done what I am about to do.I wonder who?”
45 Peer AssistA peer assist is a meeting or workshop where people are invited from other groups and organisations to share their experience, insights and knowledge with a team who have requested some help early on in a piece of worktargets a specific technical or commercial challenge;gains assistance and insights from people outside the team;identifies possible approaches and new lines of inquiry;promotes sharing of learning with each other; anddevelops strong networks amongst people involved
46 Peer Assist Multiplying Knowledge What’s possible? ActionMultiplying KnowledgeWhat’spossible?What you knowin your context"...the politics accompanying hierarchies hampers the free exchange of knowledge. People are much more open with their peers. They are much more willing to share and to listen”What we both knowWhat I knowin my context
47 Learning During: Stories Stories of change1. Situation2. A change or challenge3. Action4. Result5. Lesson
48 Learning after: AAR An after action review asks 4 simple questions: What was supposed to happen?What actually happened?Why was there a difference?What can we learn from it?15 minute team debrief, conducted in a “rank-free” environment.Invented by the US ArmyUsed by all the troopsAfter each ActionNow firmly embedded in Army culturePart of the training program13
49 Knowledge Audit What are the core tasks? What do the people doing them need to know?How is the knowledge generated?How is it stored and accessed?Any problems?What are the relationships between producers and users?How could it be improved?Any leadership issues?Any incentive problems?
51 Exercise 2 – A Knowledge Audit How is the knowledge generated?How is it stored and accessed?How is it used?Any problems?How could it be improved?
52 Further InformationMapping Political Context: A Toolkit for Civil Society Organisations. Robert Nash, Alan Hudson and Cecilia LuttrellTools for Knowledge and Learning: A guide for development and humanitarian organisations. Ben RamalingamA Toolkit for Progressive Policymakers in Developing Countries. Sophie Sutcliffe and Julius CourtSuccessful Communication: A Toolkit for Researchers and Civil Society Organisations Ingie Hovland,Tools for Policy Impact: A Handbook for Researchers Daniel Start and Ingie Hovland