Presentation on theme: "FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTION Geraldine Becchi and Michael Meier"— Presentation transcript:
1 FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTION Geraldine Becchi and Michael Meier CAPACITY DEVELOPMENTFOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTIONNiloy BanerjeeCapacity Development Group/UNDPGeraldine Becchi and Michael MeierCapacity for Disaster Reduction Initiative(UNDP/UNOCHA/UNISDR)
2 CAPACITY BUILDING CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT Narrower scope –capacity development as a means to an endFocuses more on the initial stages of building or creating capacitiesOften concerned with what outsiders will do to help build capacity and the contribution they can makeLinked more to technical cooperation and to skills development, training, technology transferOne off or shorter –term interventionsBroader scope –capacity is both the means and the intended outcome in itselfIncludes both creating and building (or enhancement) as well as the (subsequent) use, management, retention and sustainability of capabilitiesSeeks to capitalize on existing national capacities as a starting pointUnderstands that capacity development is nationally owned and led, with outside actors providing support to country led processesIncludes a mix of approaches and measures, technical and less tangible, formal and informalLonger-term perspective
3 What Does the Evidence Show (1/4) Capacity development is underpinned by the fundamental characteristic of national ownershipA comprehensive capacity development response must link to and draw from relevant national reforms to be sustained, e.g., civil service, wage, language, education, pubic administration reformsTaking a capacity development response to scale requires linking it to national and local plans, processes, budgets and systemsCapacity development is an endogenous change process. Any meaningful capacity development support needs to start from existing capacities and work with the assets that any country brings to the table.While alignment in UN programming with national priorities is strong, alignment with national systems has been found to be weak and the extensive use of PIU continues to be a practice rather than exception. If national systems are not strong enough they should be reformed and strengthened rather than bypassed.The UN should apply a “do-no-harm” principle. It is better to create no capacity than to create the wrong capacity.3
4 What Does the Evidence Show (2/4) Tendency often to look only inside of an organization and downplay larger institutional context in which that organization residesA capacity development response should be based on the findings of a capacity assessment, and is a deliberate set of sequenced actions that will influence a given set of skills, systems and power relationsA capacity development response can and often must show both short- and long-term gains, to ensure continued political commitment and resource supportNo matter what the entry point for capacity development is, it is about change. Change is always politically charged and is about vested interests, power relations and political economy.Need to look more at organizations’ external space and relations.The UN system and the specialized UN agencies in particular feel more comfortable dealing with technical capacities than functional capacities. However, the two cannot be separated from one another. In doing so a response better addresses the end game of what productive asset was gained by enhanced capacity (job creation, higher incomes, better immunization…)4
5 What Does the Evidence Show (3/4) Capacity development is not about a technical fix. It is about transformations and must address how best to manage change“Capacity traps” more often pertinent to the “soft side”, such as power relations, vested interests, access, ethics and attitudesTechnical assistance and capacity development are not the same thing! Capacity development is more than training. Training is necessary, but what learning strategies work best for what purpose….Capacity development is not about a technical fix! It is about political change and mindsets.There is a tendency to assume away the “soft side”, because we are not comfortable with the question of ethics and values. This is not an easy issue to address, since RBM systems are not well adapted to capturing intangibles, however it is an integral part of ensuring that the right kind of capacity grows and stays.Technical assistance and training interventions appear to have little sustainability and limited impact when obstacles to change are not tackled by other interventions.Training is necessary but need to know what types of learning strategies work best for what purpose. And the technical expert is not necessarily the best “trainer’ or coach.The World Bank published an illuminating report in On average over the last decade the Bank has invested over 720 million USD per year in training. In a recent evaluation, they found that this training had a sustainable impact upon the organization and its functions only 50% of the time. We don’t invest sufficiently in what happens before and after training, securing support of managers, addressing institutional constraints to follow up, etc.Technical cooperation is only one of the many ways development partners can use to support capacity development. It may be helpful to distinguish capacity development as a process and technical cooperation as one of several possible ways to support it. Technical assistance and training are the types of capacity development activities which were the most frequently used.5
6 What Does the Evidence Show (4/4) Our approach to supporting capacity development need to be highly contextual, iterative and flexible for “good fit”The hardest part of a CD process for external partners is the “letting go”- the litmus test for capacity development is if we make ourselves irrelevant!Capacity development must be grounded in endogenous efforts if it is to be meaningful and sustainable. Embed capacity needs in context by addressing “capacity for whom?” and “capacity for what?”Where country capacity has met the required standards, clear exit strategies must enable the hand over to national systems6
7 UNDG Capacity Development Approach Engagement with Partners and Building ConsensusStep 1:Assessing Capacity Assets and NeedsStep 2:Step 3:Designing Capacity Development StrategiesStep 4:Implementing Capacity DevelopmentStrategiesStep 5:Evaluation of Capacity DevelopmentEffortsCapacity Development ProcessUNDG Position Statement on Capacity Development details a process for UNCTs as they begin to integrate capacity development into national development strategies, poverty reduction strategies and sectors plans – by embedding a collective vision and response into the UNDAF, Country Programmes and Projects.
9 Capacity Assessment and Capacity Development… Key Design Questions Capacity for Why?Capacity for Whom?Capacity for What?
10 Core Issues & Capacity Development Actions Institutional Arrangements: e.g., support to functional reviews and the design of human resource management systems, monetary and non-monetary incentive mechanisms and results-based management.Leadership : e.g., support to visioning, systems thinking and strategic planning exercises; promotion of peer-to-peer mentoring; coalition building and negotiation skills development; design of career management systems.Knowledge: e.g., support to education reform strategies to incorporate human development needs into curriculum reform; facilitation of partnerships for investment in reforming post-secondary education; support to south-south learning solutions.Accountability : Design and support to monitoring and evaluation systems and independent partner review mechanisms; promotion of public information disclosure policies and legislation; support to civic education.
11 Measuring Capacity Development An improvement in capacity accelerates achievements of development goalsChange in System Performance, Stability and AdaptabilityChange in CapacityChange in Development Conditions11
12 Capacity Assessment and Development Planning… Multiple Points of Entry National Development StrategiesSectorsThemes
13 UNDP Capacity Assessment Methodology – What’s New? Brings rigor and a systematic process for assessing existing capacities and needs and formulating a capacity development responseProvides a structure for discussion about the scale and scope of a capacity assessment and more generally about a capacity development agendaProvides resources and tools to support a capacity assessment including content for assessing the various cross-sections of point of entry, core issue and functional capacity
14 UNDP Capacity Assessment Methodology – What’s Different? Focuses on capacity… not organizational design, not functional roles and responsibilities, not riskEmphasizes the link with capacity development responses… tries to move beyond “analysis paralysis” – people are happy to stay in the analysis phase… most have skills in this area, accountability for results is limited… it’s a safe areaEstablishes indicators… the indicators used to assess capacity become the benchmarks against which to measure progress
15 Capacity Development Website – www.undp.org/capacity
16 UNDP Capacity Development Resources Theoretical and Case Study PublicationsCapacity for Development: New Solutions to Old ProblemsDeveloping Capacity through Technical CooperationOwnership, Leadership, and Transformation: Can We Do Better for Capacity Development?Action Brief on Capacities for Integrated Local DevelopmentAction Brief on Brain GainAction Brief on Ethics and Values in Civil Service ReformsPractice NotesPractice Note on Capacity DevelopmentPractice Note on Capacity AssessmentPractice Note on Supporting Capacities for Integrated Local DevelopmentPractice Note on Capacity Development during Periods of Transition
17 UNDP Capacity Development Resources (Contd.) Concept Notes on Capacity Development ResponsesInstitutional Reform and Change Management: Managing Change in Public Sector OrganizationsIncentive Systems: Incentives, Motivation and Development PerformanceLeadership Development: Leading Transformations at the Local LevelKnowledge Services and LearningMutual Accountability Mechanisms: Accountability, Voice and ResponsivenessMulti-Stakeholder Engagement ProcessesConcept Notes on Capacity Development ApplicationsCapacity Development and Aid ManagementProcurement Capacities
18 UNDP Capacity Development Resources (Contd.) Resource Guides and Tools (Selection)UNDP Capacity Assessment User’s Guide and Supporting ToolA Review of Selected Capacity Assessment MethodologiesUNDP Procurement Capacity Assessment User’s Guide and Supporting ToolResource Catalogue on Measuring Capacities: An Illustrative Guide to Benchmarks and IndicatorsNetworkCapacity Development Network and Community of Practice