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Knowledge and Information Management Ben Ramalingam RAPID Programme, ODI Research and Policy in Development Programme BOND-ODI.

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Presentation on theme: "Knowledge and Information Management Ben Ramalingam RAPID Programme, ODI Research and Policy in Development Programme BOND-ODI."— Presentation transcript:

1 Knowledge and Information Management Ben Ramalingam RAPID Programme, ODI Research and Policy in Development Programme BOND-ODI Workshop London, 9 th June 2005

2 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, Why are we all here today? Understand the organisational competencies required for effective knowledge and learning Gain exposure to a range of methods that can be used to promote individual and organisational management of ‘explicit’ knowledge Describe experiences, methods and approaches that have worked for yourselves and your peers Receive peer support in thinking through how you might take forward knowledge and learning work within your own organisation

3 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, Agenda for today Getting to know each other 10:20 Knowledge, learning and the benchmarking approach Sharing through story telling 11.30: Coffee break 11.45: Review Knowledge assets & personal information strategies 13.00: Lunch 14.00: Developing a knowledge asset 15.30: Coffee 15.45: Strategies, Tools and M&E 16.30: Action Plans 17.00: After action review / Evaluation 17.25: Wrap up and close by 17.30

4 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, The BOND-ODI approach Experiential mutual learning Balance of presenting and facilitating Relaxed, informal & fun

5 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, External networks; Colleagues; Information assets What are we talking about when we say “knowledge and learning”? “…The idea is not to create an encyclopaedia of everything that everybody knows, but to keep track of people who ‘know the recipe’, and nurture the technology and culture that will get them talking…” Goals Results Using Knowledge Using Knowledge Learn during Learn after Learn before

6 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, There are different forms of knowledge… Start Has it been articulated? Can it been articulated? ExplicitTacit Implicit YN Y N

7 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, …and different approaches to learning and influencing

8 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, Getting the environment right Shared beliefs and common values A willingness to ask for help Common technology which connects people Effective Peer Processes Rewarding and recognising learning Identifying and reinforcing the right leadership behaviours

9 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, Some quotes "Practice provides the rails on which knowledge flows." John Seely-Brown "When knowledge gained somewhere doesn't move elsewhere, that's not a learning organization; that's just a bunch of projects." Saratoga Institute “It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.” Charles Darwin “Most activities or tasks are not one time events… our philosophy is fairly simple: every time we do something again we should do it better than the last time.” Lord Browne

10 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, ODI experience Knowledge and learning are at the heart of the ODI approach to bridge research, policy and practice ODI research groups and networks provide a substantial knowledge base –e.g. ALNAP and RAPID The ODI-DFID PPA has systematic learning as a core principle

11 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, ODI - research

12 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, ODI – a strategic framework for change organisational contexts leadership approaches, governance structures, management processes, institutional pressures, funding cycles, historical evolution etc. knowledge – forms and locations; processes – e.g.: creation, sharing, storage, use; key activities and tools; staff capacities; relevance, M&E external factors knowledge of partners, donors, other external agencies; networks; national and global factors links within and across the organisation boundaries – via communities and ICTs; to communications plans; to core functions and support functions, etc

13 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, ODI - a menu of tools (more about this later…)

14 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, ODI – practical applications

15 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, Self Assessment

16 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, Results of the knowledge benchmarking

17 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, Example of a river diagram…

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24 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, Example of a step diagram… Gap between current and target level Current level Managing knowledge Managing knowledge

25 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, Other applications: AIDS Competence for retrospect on KM in AIDS project

26 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, 2005 What you know in your context What I know in my context Peer Assists What we both know What’s possible?

27 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, Situation 2. A change or challenge 3. Action 4. Result 5. Lesson Storytelling

28 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, Group Task 1 – As pairs then groups Think of a specific change related to “managing knowledge” (OR one of the other competencies) in one of your own projects or programmes, past or present – Reflect and recall the detail before, during and after. Write nothing down –1 minute` Find a stranger and take it in turns to listen to and tell a story –Please write nothing down. –4 minutes; 2 mins each Use templates to interview your partner and write each story up –Make sure your images and messages are clear. –10 minutes; 5 minutes each Find another pair and tell your partner’s story –12 minutes; 3 minutes each In your new groups of 4, ask – what are the 3-5 concrete lessons emerging from our stories? –10 minutes per group Walk around and highlight favourites from the sheets –Use green dots provided

29 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, Agenda for today Getting to know each other 10:20 Knowledge, learning and the benchmarking approach Sharing through story telling 11.30: Coffee break 11.45: Review Knowledge assets & personal information strategies 13.00: Lunch 14.00: Developing a knowledge asset 15.30: Coffee 15.45: Strategies, Tools and Measurement 16.30: Action Plans 17.00: After action review / Evaluation 17.25: Wrap up and close by 17.30

30 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, All participants What was it like to shape and tell the story? What was it like to hear your story told by another? What was it like to tell someone else’s story? How else could you use this method? What are its limitations? 10 minutes

31 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, Building and managing knowledge assets – key lessons Specificity Commitment Incentives and rewards Demand Precision costs! Focus on priority decisions Build on existing systems and routines Link to existing processes and incentives Watch out for “losers” Go for greatest impact

32 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, Key questions for developing knowledge assets What do we think this knowledge asset is really about? What users and uses might there be there for this knowledge asset? What communities? What types of information will be available on the asset? –In what formats and structures? –How could useful existing material be incorporated? How to include people in the asset to build the social life of the asset? How should the asset be made available to users? How to build two-way relationships? –incentivise feedback from users –instil ownership in users How to measure impact? Supply side!

33 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, An aside: communicating KM What – are you communicating? (Content) Who – are you communicating to? (Audience) How – are you communicating it? (Channel) When – are you communicating it? (Freq/Timing) Why – are you communicating it? (Reason/Benefit)

34 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, A fundamental lesson for development agencies Personal knowledge management skills are as important, if not more, than technical tools ! –Ways that people filter information overload –Making sense of and analysing information –Synthesising information –Using information to communicate effectively with others Individual behaviours are essential for organisational strategies to work –Individual plans can help Demand side!

35 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, Task 2 – “put yourself in their shoes” 1. What are your information needs? 2. What are your key sources? Who are the knowledge brokers? 3. What do you want supplied? What do you want on demand? 4. How and when to process mission critical information? 5. How do you want to file and save? What organisational guidelines are there for this? 6. What is an appropriate filing system for you? How could you document and share this? 7. How to refine and synthesise your information for use by you and others? 8. How to review your information? Pairs to work through these steps to fill out personal information management frameworks for each other 20 minutes each (total of 40 minutes)

36 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, All participants What were some of the challenges there? What could we change in our own approaches? 10 minutes

37 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, Task 3 – as groups after lunch Work in groups of 4-5 You will be given a knowledge asset challenge for you to respond to Work through each of the questions with your group –Appoint a recorder within each group –Appoint a reporter for each group –Brainstorm each asset and related questions for approx 60mins, taking notes on flip chart paper (to be collected for workshop report – write clear!) –Try to incorporate 2-3 concrete actions from the morning session –Present back to the group (5 mins per groups) –Q&A and summary

38 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, Agenda for today Getting to know each other 10:20 Knowledge, learning and the benchmarking approach Sharing through story telling 11.30: Coffee break 11.45: Review Knowledge assets & personal information strategies 13.00: Lunch 14.00: Developing a knowledge asset 15.30: Coffee 15.45: Strategies, Tools and Measurement 16.30: Action Plans 17.00: After action review / Evaluation 17.25: Wrap up and close by 17.30

39 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, The Knowledge Strategies Framework organisational contexts leadership approaches, governance structures, management processes, institutional pressures, funding cycles, historical evolution etc. knowledge – forms and locations; processes – e.g.: creation, sharing, storage, use; key activities and tools; staff capacities; relevance, M&E external factors knowledge of partners, donors, other external agencies; networks; national and global factors links within and across the organisation boundaries – via communities and ICTs; to communications plans; to core functions and support functions, etc

40 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, The framework can be used to devise and revise strategies The external factors How does the knowledge and learning strategy address issues emerging from external relationships and factors? The context How do issues of institutional governance, politics and economics support or hinder the knowledge and learning strategy? Links How does knowledge and learning link to structures, functions, core activities, supporting activities and processes of a given organisation? The knowledge How is knowledge and learning understood and applied within each organisation? What tools are used, why and how?

41 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, And allows useful comparisons 1. Ideal model e.g. ?? KnowledgeLinks Contexts 2. Islands model e.g. multilaterals Knowledge Links Contexts 3. Technocratic model e.g. donors Knowledge Links Contexts 4. Ivory Tower model e.g. Research institutes Knowledge Links Contexts

42 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, Knowledge: processes and tools There are a range of processes to consider –Mapping and creation of knowledge –Managing and storing knowledge –Learning and sharing knowledge –Use of knowledge The different processes and different forms of knowledge can be brought together…

43 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, Knowledge: a menu of tools

44 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, What is the M&E problem we face? The problem with attribution –Multiple actors and factors contribute –Unintended results are often ignored –Influence shifts overtime (indirect relation) –Impact of our interventions occurs further down the development chain The problem with Accountability vs. Learning

45 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, The problem with attribution Knowledge and Learning Your organisation Family Gov GRO USAID Church CSOs DFID

46 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, Why do we face these problems? Because the responsibility for achieving results ultimately depends on the actions of our partners as influenced by the contexts in which they work Focusing on downstream impact increases programming bureaucratisation and is inconsistent with our understanding of learning & development as complex processes

47 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, What is Outcome Mapping (OM)? OM is a dynamic methodology useful in the development of planning, monitoring and evaluation mechanism. OM: –Provides the tools to think holistically and strategically about how it intends to achieve results –Focuses on outcomes instead of impacts –It deals with Contribution instead of attribution –Forces us to limit our planning and evaluation to our sphere of influence –Deals with changes in the behaviours of our direct partners

48 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, Influence over time and the focus of OM Influence Time

49 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, The 3 Stages of OM and what we can do today… Intentional Design: the Why? Who? What? How? –Vision –Mission –Boundary Partners –Outcome Challenges –Progress Markers –Strategy Maps –Organisational Practices Outcome and Performance Monitoring Evaluation Planning

50 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, Boundary partners = BPs Knowledge & Learning Program

51 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, Boundary Partners Individuals, groups and organisations with whom the programme interacts directly to effect changes… Those that you are trying to encourage to change so that they can contribute to the vision… People with whom you will work directly

52 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, Task 4 – Outcome Mapping Lite …as individuals Who are your program boundary partners? What KM-related changes are you trying to bring about in their practices? –Try to group similar partners according to the type of behavioural changes sought Why? What benefits would you expect?

53 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, Action Planning - KM An Action Plan is a sequenced plan of specific actions to deliver defined objectives. It involves thinking through a series of questions: –What are your change objectives for KM? Priorities? –What are the major forces for & against this change ? –Which forces can you engage with? –Who are the key players? Who can you influence? –What resources & tools do / could you apply? –Are there any other issues? –How will you engage with the key players and what will you do?

54 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, Task 5 – as individuals Build on work you have already done today to develop an action plan to deliver your KM change objectives

55 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, Task 6 - After Action Review What was supposed to happen today? What actually happened today? What was done well and what should be done differently? What specific actionable recommendations can be made as a result of these findings, to inform and improve future training sessions?

56 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, Evaluation forms To be filled out before you go

57 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, Some quotes "Practice provides the rails on which knowledge flows." John Seely-Brown "When knowledge gained somewhere doesn't move elsewhere, that's not a learning organization; that's just a bunch of projects." Saratoga Institute “It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.” Charles Darwin “Most activities or tasks are not one time events… our philosophy is fairly simple: every time we do something again we should do it better than the last time.” Lord Browne

58 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, Our roles What you’re not: –“Knowledge doctor” –Senior Technocrat –Joan of Arc! (“crash and burn”) What you are: –Spark Plug –Broker –Thomas Edison! (“trial and error”…but looking for that popular ‘light bulb’ result!)

59 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, Making serendipity happen everyday…

60 RAPID Programme BOND and ODI, London, June, Thank You! Please keep in touch! Ben Ramalingam – Yvonne Thomas – RAPID Programme Overseas Development Institute 111 Westminster Bridge Road London SE1 7JD Tel: (+44) Fax: (+44) )


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