2 Mapping the Policy Context RAPID FrameworkStakeholder AnalysisForce field analysisPolicy Process MappingInfluence mappingOutcome Mapping
3 The Policy Cycle (Young and Quinn, 2002) This is a working definition of the policy process. However, we recognise that the policy process is not necessarily cyclical.(Young and Quinn, 2002)
4 Stakeholder Analysis Why: Steps: To understand who gains or lose from a policy or project.To help Build Consensus.Steps:Identify StakeholdersAnalysis WorkshopDevelop StrategiesKeep SatisfiedEngage CloselyMonitor (minimum effort)Keep InformedHighPowerLowInterest
5 Forcefield Analysis Steps: Identify a specific Change Identify forces for and againsty changePrioritise the forcesDevelop Strategies to overcome opposing and reinforce supporting forcesForce field analysis is widely used to inform decision-making, and in particular in planning and implementing change management programmes in organizations. It is also a useful method for gaining a comprehensive view of the different forces (their source and strength) acting on a potential policy change and is therefore a very powerful tool for analyzing the possibilities for influencing policy. Force field analysis can clarify the ‘driving forces’ and identify obstacles or ‘restraining forces’ to change. For bridging research and policy, it can be used to analyse the forces affecting a situation or to assess the forces affecting whether particular research might be adopted as policy. It might also be used to identify where research may help tip forces towards a change.How to do a forcefield analysis? The first step is to discuss and agree on the current situation and the goal of the policy or institutional change. All the forces for change should then be listed in one column and all forces against change in the other column. The next step is to brainstorm the ‘driving’ and ‘restraining’ forces and write them in the appropriate column. The ‘driving’ and ‘restraining’ forces should be sorted on common themes and/or prioritised according to their ‘magnitude’ towards change by assigning a score to each force, ranging from 1 (weak) to 5 (strong). The last and the most important step is to discuss action strategies to reduce the ‘restraining’ forces and to capitalise on the ‘driving’ forces.
6 Policy Process Workshops Looking at internal policy processes – what works in DFID.Small, informal workshop with 7 staff.Participatory pair-wise ranking of factors influencing the success of 8 policy processes.Worked quite well.In DFID - agendas and processes rather than documents are key
7 Policy Process Mapping General Context issues – domestic and international.Specific Policy Issues (i.e. the policy cycle)Who are the Stakeholders? (Stakeholder analysis)Arena: government, parliament, civil society, judiciary, private sector.Level: local, national, internationalWhat is their Interest and Influence?Process matrix + political matrixPolitical and administrative feasibility assessment[Sources: M. Grindle / J. Court ]BACKGROUNDGood News – Evidence can matter (e.g. bednets vs malaria). Other cases around Room. DFID Research Policy Study.Bad News – But … often major gaps (e.g. HIV/AIDS). Resistance despite clear evidence.How to bridge the gap?Key Question: When does evidence matter? We still need a systematic understanding.ODI RAPID / GDN Bridging Research and Policy Project – 50 case studies.PAPER IN PRESS - Handout Exec Summary / Soon on webCHALLENGE – Massive amount of work into 15 minutes
8 Policy Process Mapping National & Local (& International)
9 Policy Process Mapping for SMEs Participants work on a set of actors related to policy processesSteps:Identify key actors that influence SME policyCreate Matrix: Organizations and Key Steps of the Policy ProcessDescribe Organizations’ formal position in the policy processDescribe Organizations’ informal influence on the policy processGive a number rating (1=low; 5=high) for the influence each organization has on different parts of the policy process.
10 Policy Process Mapping Identify key actors that influence SME policyCreate Matrix: Organizations and Key Steps of the Policy ProcessDescribe Organizations’ formal position in the policy processDescribe Organizations’ informal influence on the policy processGive a number rating (1=low; 5=high) for the influence each organization has on different parts of the policy process.Relative location of ResearchGroup 1 – GovernmentGroup 2 – Political Society and BureaucracyGroup 3 – Civil Society, Private Sector and International
11 Group Work 1: Mapping the political process Within your area(s) – identify the key actors that influence SME policy formulation and/or implementationOutline their formal and informal roles in formulation and/or implementation and write a description on an index cardAlso identify, and write on the car where SME research is undertakenGive a number rating (1=low; 5=high) for the influence each organization has on different parts of the policy process.
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