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Chapter 13 Section 4-5 England, France, Germany, and Italy.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 Section 4-5 England, France, Germany, and Italy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 13 Section 4-5 England, France, Germany, and Italy

2 The End of King John Revolt by nobles ends in John’s death Crown passes to King Henry III, John’s son (1216-1272) Magna Carta gets re-issued several times Unite the middle class, nobles, and king Growth of Parliament and common law (law based on customs and judges decisions rather than written code)

3 Moving Towards Parliament Revolt led by Simon de Montfort threatens the monarchy once again Representatives of nobles, clergy, and middle class meet in Great Council - first Parliament 2 houses = “House of Lords” (nobles and clergy) and “House of Commons” (knights and burgesses/leading citizens)

4 Continued Evolution 1272 - Edward I ascends the throne - divides king’s court into three branches Court of the Exchequer - finances Court of Common Pleas - ordinary citizens Court of the King’s Bench - king and gov’t Decisions of court used as basis for future decisions - Common Law “living law” - changed to meet changing conditions

5 Rise of Capetian Kings of France Last Carolingian king died 987 Nobles chose Hugh Capet as King Capetians ruled for 300 years Only ruled a small area of France (Ile-de-France) Fertile, grain-growing district Sought to unite all duchies of France Anjou, Aquitaine, Gascony, Flanders, Normandy, etc. Successors sought political alliances Married noblewomen with large dowries and fiefs

6 Regaining Land Philip II (Philip Augustus) 1180-1223 Looking to conquer English occupied lands in France Greatly increased royal landholdings such as Maine and Normandy

7 Continued Rise Appointed well-trained officials to run gov’t Parliament of Paris = highest royal court Philip IV (the Handsome) 1285-1314 Expelled Jews from France and took their possessions Extend royal power Taxed the clergy

8 Disagreement with Pope Pope Boniface VII opposes taxes, so Philip has him arrested After Boniface dies, Phil influences election of Clement V as Pope Convenes the Estates General to gain support Nobles, Clergy, and Commoners

9 End of Capetian Kings Capetian kings strengthened royal power in France - more central gov’t Vision of unified country = impossible Little appeal for monarchy at local level Last Capetian ruler, Charles IV, dies New line of French kings - Valois

10 The Holy Roman Empire After death of Charlemagne - Italy in state of disorder Descendents inherited title of Holy Roman Emperor Multiple rulers in Italy Pope - Papal States Byzantines - ruled parts Arabs - ruled Sicily

11 Otto I (the Great) Elected king of Germany (936) Desired strong central kingdom like Capetians in France Also wanted Italy 951 - seized territory in N. Italy Pope begs him for help dealing with nobles Otto agrees, and is crowned Emperor of the Romans in 962 Controls Northern Italy

12 Henry III Emperor from 1046-1056 Expected church to actively support him and the empire 3 men claimed the papacy during his reign He removed them and chose the next 3 popes himself

13 Henry IV 5 years old - chance for nobles to regain independence and feudal power Church sought to regain lost power Clashes with Pope Gregory VII Conflict over lay investiture = an imperial rulers right to appoint bishops Gregory --> NO Henry --> YES Gregory has Henry excommunicated

14 Pope vs. King 1077 --> Henry travels to meet the pope and beg for mercy = gets excommunication revoked 1122 - Concordat of Worms Limits imperial power over church Only Pope can name Bishops Does NOT end conflict between rulers and popes Interference in Italy threatens Papal States

15 Frederick Barbarossa (Frederick I) Ruled Germany from 1152-1190 Wanted to control Lombardy (N. Italy) Merchant cities Milan resisted, so he destroyed the city Cities united as the Lombard League Defeated Frederick in 1176 Peace treaty Frederick = overlord Cities could govern themselves

16 Pope Innocent III (1198-1216) Strongest medieval pope Believed emperors/kings were no more than servants of the church He could settle all political AND spiritual matters Used excommunication and interdict freely King John and England - interdict Philip Augustus - interdict Overthrew 2 German kings

17 Failed Unification Italy and Germany never united Frederick II tried to bring both countries together under his rule = FAIL Italy divided into 3 regions N. Italy - Lombard cities Central Italy (Papal States) - Pope S. Italy - kingdom of Sicily

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