Presentation on theme: "12/2 Focus: 12/2 Focus: – The Romans established a new form of government known as a republic – The Romans influenced many of the values and institutions."— Presentation transcript:
12/2 Focus: 12/2 Focus: – The Romans established a new form of government known as a republic – The Romans influenced many of the values and institutions of western civilization. Important Terms: Important Terms: – Republic, Patricians, Plebeians Do Now: Do Now: – Identify the type of government found in the United States
Review What were some of the geographic characteristics associated with the Italian Peninsula?
Review What were some of the geographic advantages of Rome’s location in Italy?
Review What were the three groups that had the most influence on early Rome?
The Roman Republic Etruscan kings ruled Rome from 600 B.C. to 509 BC – Roman aristocrats overthrew the last Etruscan king in 509 BC – Establish a republic
The Roman Republic Republic – A form of government in which elected officials govern the state – power rests with citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders – Indirect democracy or representative democracy Rome allowed free-born male citizens to participate in elections – Women could not vote
Roman Citizens PatriciansPatriciansPlebeiansPlebeians Aristocratic landowners Controlled Senate Made the laws of Rome 10% of pop. Farmers, Artists, merchants majority Wanted more influence on gov’t
Patricians and Plebeians Plebeians demanded more rights in Rome from the patricians – Assembly Gained more power over time – Tribunes Officials elected to protect the rights of plebeians Could veto laws that were unjust to plebeians
Roman Government Senate – 300 patrician men – Served for life – Controlled finances and foreign relations – Advised consuls
Roman Government Assemblies – Tribal Assembly and Centuriate Assembly – Made laws and appointeed officials Gaius Gracchus, tribune of the people, presiding over the Plebeian Council
Roman Government Consuls – 2 consuls elected by the assembly for 1 year – Chief executives and commanded the army
Roman Government In times of crisis, the republic could appoint a dictator to rule Rome. – Dictator a leader who has absolute power – Could only rule for six months – Were chosen by the consul and elected by the Senate Cincinnatus
12/3 Focus: 12/3 Focus: – The location of Rome helped the Romans to carry on trade and build an empire around the Mediterranean Sea Do Now: Do Now: – Identify two codes of law that we have discussed in class this year?
The Twelve Tables of Rome First written code of law in Rome Plebeians demanded laws of Rome be written down – Laws were carved on twelve bronze tablets and displayed in the Roman Forum Established the principle that all free citizens had the right to protection of the law
The Roman Forum The center of life in Rome Marketplace and civic center – Senate met in the forum – Public speeches were given here – Site of many businesses
Points for Discussion What is the difference between a republic and a direct democracy? How are the Twelve Tables of Rome and Hammurabi’s Code similar? What was the difference between patricians and plebeians?