3 Changes in Agriculture (The High Middle Ages): Europe’s population went from 38 million to 78 million people.Two main reasons for this:1. peace and stability after invasions stopped.2. food production increased.Why did food production increase?A change in climate improved growing conditions.Changes in technology aided the development of farming.The shift from a two-field to a three-field system of crop rotation.
4 The Manorial SystemThe manorial system thrived during the High Middle Ages.Serfs provided the economic support, allowing lords to focus on warfare.Serfs were required to pay lords for certain services (use of the lord’s mill, bakery).The lord protected his serfs, giving them the safety needed to grow crops.
5 Peasants worked year round for the lord of the manor. Understanding Cause and Effect – Explain how the peasants’ activities in one month affected their activities in later months.Making Inferences – Based on your knowledge of current agricultural technology, compare and contrast a peasant’s yearly routine to that of a modern farmer.
7 The Revival of TradeBy the end of the 10th century, Europe experienced a revival of trade.Cities in Italy were trading with both the Mediterranean region and Northern Europe.The increase in trade led to the development of a money economy, an economic system based on money, rather than barter.The development of a money economy led to a rise in commercial capitalism.Commercial capitalism - economic system in which people invested in trade and goods in order to make profits.
10 The Growth of CitiesThe revival of trade led to a growth of towns and cities.Merchants and craftspeople settled in old Roman cities.Many new cities were founded, especially in Northern Europe.This growth of trade and cities helped lead to the decline of feudalism.People in towns and cities were given numerous rights by their lords.Over time, cities developed their own governments.In many cities, elections were rigged so wealthy and powerful citizens were elected to office.
11 Daily Life in a Medieval City Medieval cities were surrounded by stone walls.On the inside, they were very crowded.The physical environment was not pleasant.Cities were dirty and smelled of human and animal waste.Air and water pollution was rampant.Public baths were also used.Women were expected to supervise the household, prepare meals, raise the children, and manage the family’s finances.
13 Industry and GuildsThe revival of trade made cities centers of manufacturing.Craftspeople began to organize themselves into guilds, or business associations.Guilds directed almost every aspect of an industry.They set standards of quality, specified methods of production, and set prices.They also determined who can enter a specific trade and the procedure for doing so.