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Western Civilizations Unit 4 CH 7 section 3 and 4 The role of the Church Agricultural and Economic Revolution Culture of the high middle ages C. 1000-1300.

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Presentation on theme: "Western Civilizations Unit 4 CH 7 section 3 and 4 The role of the Church Agricultural and Economic Revolution Culture of the high middle ages C. 1000-1300."— Presentation transcript:

1 Western Civilizations Unit 4 CH 7 section 3 and 4 The role of the Church Agricultural and Economic Revolution Culture of the high middle ages C AD

2 The Expanded Role of the Clergy Church Hierarchy? Church Hierarchy? The Role of Monks and Nuns The Role of Monks and Nuns St. Benedict (Monte Cassino 529): The rules for monastic life St. Benedict (Monte Cassino 529): The rules for monastic life Missionary work (St. Boniface) Missionary work (St. Boniface) Manuscript illumination Manuscript illumination Hospitals, education of farmers Hospitals, education of farmers

3 The Role of the Church in daily life Village Church (relics) Village Church (relics) Supported by the Tithe Supported by the Tithe Cathedrals (run by Bishops) by c Cathedrals (run by Bishops) by c Begin to build in a new style called Gothic which replaces Romanesque architecture Begin to build in a new style called Gothic which replaces Romanesque architecture

4 Problems of the Holy Roman Empire and the Church This led to many abuses by the Emperor This led to many abuses by the Emperor Lay investiture (Church v. state authority) Lay investiture (Church v. state authority) Why so important to the Emperor? Why so important to the Emperor? Simony (sale of Church offices) Simony (sale of Church offices) Pluralism (holding more than one office) Pluralism (holding more than one office)

5 Changes in Agriculture Population explosion (38-74 mil. in 300 years) Population explosion (38-74 mil. in 300 years) The settlement of the 9 th century invaders led to peace and stability The settlement of the 9 th century invaders led to peace and stability Climate improved Climate improved More land farmed = more food More land farmed = more food Changes in technology (next slide) Changes in technology (next slide)

6 Inventions and the Agricultural Revolution (after 1000) Water and wind mills Water and wind mills Heavier plows made of iron (Carruca) Heavier plows made of iron (Carruca) Collar harness (horses instead of oxen) Collar harness (horses instead of oxen) The horseshoe The horseshoe The three field system The three field system The result The result Better crops, more food, better diet Better crops, more food, better diet Between 1000 and 1300 the population of Western Europe doubled Between 1000 and 1300 the population of Western Europe doubled

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8 The Growth of Trade Population explosion = an increase in demand Population explosion = an increase in demand The first city states (Venice, Genoa, Pisa) established trade with the East (Asia-Byz-Eur) The first city states (Venice, Genoa, Pisa) established trade with the East (Asia-Byz-Eur) Learning of Arabs and Greeks now appears in the West Learning of Arabs and Greeks now appears in the West New business practices made trade easier “The Commercial Revolution” New business practices made trade easier “The Commercial Revolution” Coins (money economy) Coins (money economy) Banking (letters of credit) Banking (letters of credit) Partnerships (joint stock Co’s) Partnerships (joint stock Co’s)

9 The Revival of Towns Old Roman cities come back to life Old Roman cities come back to life Craftsmen now produce goods for trade and create the new middle class or Bourgeoisie Craftsmen now produce goods for trade and create the new middle class or Bourgeoisie Guilds: Apprentice, Journeyman, Master Guilds: Apprentice, Journeyman, Master Organizations of crafts workers (unions) Organizations of crafts workers (unions) Government: right to rule themselves from Charters obtained from the Lord or King Government: right to rule themselves from Charters obtained from the Lord or King Town Life (dirty, smelly, dangerous) Town Life (dirty, smelly, dangerous) Labor lords eventually become land lords Labor lords eventually become land lords Serfs become rent paying peasants (tenant farmers) Serfs become rent paying peasants (tenant farmers)

10 Romanesque v. Gothic Architecture Romanesque v. Gothic Architecture Romanesque Architecture: 11 th and 12 th Centuries Romanesque Architecture: 11 th and 12 th Centuries Fortress like appearance, rounded arch, heavy ceilings to support massive thick walls, small windows very little light or color Fortress like appearance, rounded arch, heavy ceilings to support massive thick walls, small windows very little light or color Gothic Architecture (Began in the late 1100’s) Gothic Architecture (Began in the late 1100’s) Between 1180 and Gothic Cathedrals were built in France Between 1180 and Gothic Cathedrals were built in France Pointed arches (flying buttresses) high ceilings, thin walls, stained glass windows, light, color Pointed arches (flying buttresses) high ceilings, thin walls, stained glass windows, light, color

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