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Published byErick Cross Modified over 8 years ago
2/25 Focus: 2/25 Focus: – The Crusades and improvements in farming helped contribute to renewed interest in trade in Western Europe Do Now: Do Now: – How did the Crusades renew interest in trade in Western Europe?
Improvements in Farming Iron Plow – The use of the Iron plow made farming easier and increased food production The Horse Collar and iron horse shoes – allowed farmers to use horses rather than oxen to plow fields – Horses were faster and more efficient
Improvements in Farming The Three Field System – Increased food production and made soil more fertile
Trade Improves Rise of trading centers – Italy in southern Europe Genoa and Venice – Flanders in Northern Europe
Trade Improves Trade Fairs – Took place in towns where trade routes met
Trade Improves The Hanseatic League – Association of Germanic cities to protect economic interests – Protected traders from piracy
Trade Improves Improvements in trade led to Commercial Revolution – Increased use of currency – Banking and investment increases – Rise of Capitalism Economic system where business is owned privately to make a profit Competition is a key component
Growth of Towns Trading centers and Trade Fairs led to the birth of towns – Walled and protected near the manor – King or lord granted charter Setup the rights and privileges of a town – People governed and defended the town
Growth of Towns Many serfs left the manors and moved into towns/cities – Could be free in cities if they hid from their lord for a year and one day – Increased populations in towns Towns were often overcrowded and dirty – Led to a decline in feudalism
Closure Identify one way that farming improved during the Middle Ages What were trade guilds?
2/26 Focus: – During the High Middle Ages, European society became more stable and made cultural gains in the areas of art, literature, and architecture Do Now: – Identify one effect that the renewal of trade had on Western Europe
Trade Guilds Association of businesses and craftsmen – Set prices for goods, wages, and standards for quality – Apprentices worked for 3-11 years under a master – Strangers had to pay a toll to the guilds to sell their products in a town – Guilds took care of widows and children of deceased members
Results of Trade Improvements Commercial Revolution Growth of middle class New jobs titles – Bankers, manufacturers, craftsmen Rise of national kingdoms
Revival of Learning The University – Increased the flow of Greek learning into Europe – Goal of attending universities was often to get a job in government or with the Church – Helped to create a new educated class
Literature Literacy began to increase in Europe after 1200 AD. – Coincided with growth of cities Authors began writing in the language of their countries rather than just Latin
Literature Epics and Romances were long poems that tell a story – Epics Often related to war and heroes The Song of Roland – Romances Love stories and chivalry King Arthur and the Knights of the Roundtable
Literature The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer – Collection of stories about a group of pilgrims from various social groups – Provide a description of life in the middle ages
Philosophy Thomas Aquinas – Studied the works of Greek philosophers Aristotle – Attempted to use logic and reason to prove Christian teachings and prove the existence of God Scholasticism
Architecture Gothic Architecture used to build churches Used high spires and flying buttresses Replaced Roman style of arches and domes
Architecture The flying buttress allowed churches to be built much taller and larger window – Supported walls from the outside – Allowed for higher ceilings and large stained glass windows – Eliminated the need for columns
Illumination The process of decorating a written manuscript with pictures or designs – Often used in religious text
Tapestries Large wool wall coverings that depicted life in the Middle Ages
Closure Identify one example of medieval literature. Identify the architectural style that developed in Europe during the High Middle Ages. What were trade guilds?
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