Presentation on theme: "The Middle Ages: The Resurgence of Europe Global Studies 9 Mrs. Hart and Mrs. Bernier."— Presentation transcript:
The Middle Ages: The Resurgence of Europe Global Studies 9 Mrs. Hart and Mrs. Bernier
The Agricultural Revolution New technologies used in farming made fields more productive, leading to an increase in the amount of food farmers produced. With more food available, the population grew.
New Farming Technologies Iron plow Harness to be used with horses. Windmill Reclaim wasteland for crops and grazing animals. Three-field system
Revival of Trade A surplus of agricultural products gave farmers something to trade,and as the population grew, the demand for goods not available on the manor increased.
New Trade Routes
Goods Traded between Asia and Europe Silk from China Gold from the Byzantine Empire Spices from Asia Honey and cloth from Northern Europe
Trade Fairs Trade fairs took place each year near rivers or where busy trade routes met. People from surrounding areas, flocked to the fairs. As they ate and drank, they were entertained by jugglers, acrobats, and singers.
Medieval Towns and Cities Centers of trade slowly grew into the first medieval towns and cities. The richest cities were in northern Italy and Flanders. Merchants would be granted a charter by a local lord or king to set up a new town.
Commercial Revolution As trade revived, money re-appeared. Merchants needed capital, or money for investment, to start businesses and buy goods. Banks were set up, partnerships were formed, and insurance companies were founded.
Merchant Guilds In towns, merchants and artisans formed associations called guilds. Merchant guilds appeared first. These guilds grew in power, passing laws, and raising taxes. They spent money to pave streets, and build protective walls and new town halls.
Craft Guilds Artisans eventually formed craft guilds. Each guild represented one occupation. Members cooperated to protect their own economic interests. They made rules to insure the quality of their goods, regulate hours of labor, and set prices. They also set up schools and hospitals and looked after the needs of their members and families.
Medieval Cities A jumble of narrow streets with tall houses. Large cities had a great cathedral or beautiful guild hall. By day street vendors sold their wares. At night, streets were unlit and deserted. No garbage collection or sewer systems; people threw waste in the streets. In general cities and towns were filthy, smelly, noisy, and crowded.
The Black Death “Ring around the rosy, A pocketful of posies. Ashes, ashes, We all fall down.”
The Black Death In the 1300s, the Black Death, or Bubonic Plague, spread to Europe from Asia. It was a disease that was spread by fleas on rats. Rats infested ships, towns, and homes. Fleas jumped from rats to infest the clothes and packs of traders traveling to Europe. As a result the disease spread quickly throughout Europe, killing one in every three people. The population of Europe dropped from approximately 75 million to 50 million.
Effects of the Black Death People turned to magic and witchcraft for cures. Some Christians whipped themselves, believing the plague was God’s punishment for sins. Other Christians blamed Jews and used them as scapegoats. The European economy fell apart. Workers and employers died, production of goods declined, and the prices of other goods rose. As inflation soared, revolts broke out across Western Europe. It would take more than a hundred years for Western Europe to recover.