4 After The Fall Of The Roman Empire Large kingdoms were divided up into smaller territories. The smaller territories were owned and controlled by nobles.
5 Feudalism —a way of living in which peasants and farmers depended on land-owning nobles rather than a king for protection.
6 Peasants and Farmers Got:Gave: Protection from enemies and invaders Services to the noble—the skills they possessed (blacksmith, etc) Could live on the noble’s land Fought for (defended) the noble and his land A portion of the crops they grew for the lord Freedoms—to marry, own property, leave
7 Feudalism Was Based On Loyalty And Duty Among Nobles Nobles —were both lords and vassals (But a vassal served a lord)
9 Vassals In return for fighting in the lords army the vassal got land. –The vassal's land was called a “fief.” –The vassal ruled all the people who lived on his fief. –Vassals were Knights!
10 The Manor The fiefs owned by a lord made up the lord’s manor. The lord ruled his manor. Peasants were allowed to live on the manor (on the fiefs). Some peasants were free…some weren’t. Serfs were peasants who were not free.
12 Serfs Serfs needed the lords permission to: –Leave the manor –Get married –Own his own property But Serfs were not slaves—they could not be bought or sold.
13 More About Serfs… Serfs worked long hours They had to work three days a week for the lord.. –The rest of the week they worked for themselves. They had to give a portion of their crops to the lord If a serf ran away to a city, he would be free in one year.
14 How Did Farming Improve? Several inventions improved farming: –Heavy wheeled plow Planting in hard soil was not easier –Horse collar Allowed horses to pull plows –River and wind powered mills Grain could not be easily ground into meal –Crop rotation Fields could produce more crops
15 How Did Nobles Live? Knights followed a Code of Chivalry –A guide for good behavior When noblemen went to war, his family went to live in the castle for protection. The castle offered protection and met all of daily living needs. –Bedrooms, toilets, food storage, chapels, etc.
17 What Was Peasant Life Like? Homes were very simple –Wood framed, plastered walls with clay, straw roofs, dirt floors. Worked year-round –Harvest in September, plant in early summer Women worked in the field and raised children at the same time Diets were simple –Bread, vegetables, milk, nuts, fruits
19 Trade and Cities When the Roman Empire collapsed, trade stopped, money wasn’t used, roads deteriorated, people didn’t travel, crime rose. About A.D. 1100 feudalism made Europe safer—travel and trade improved. Towns grew—travel and trade too
20 How Were Cities Governed? At first laws were made by the lords who owned the land Paying certain taxes gave some more rights to trade and travel than others Over time, towns began to choose their own town councils –Usually the wealthiest and most powerful
21 Craft Guilds Guilds were “business associations.” Most crafts/skills formed a guild Guilds set standards for the quality of work Guilds also decided on what prices goods and services should sell for
23 City Life Buildings were crowded together Streets were narrow and unpaved There was no running water and no sewers! Disease and sickness was common Air pollution Many women became self-sufficient when they also joined craft guilds