Presentation on theme: "The art of writing and speaking effectively and persuasively."— Presentation transcript:
The art of writing and speaking effectively and persuasively
Rhetoric (n) - the art of speaking or writing effectively (Webster's Definition). According to Aristotle, rhetoric is "the ability, in each particular case, to see the available means of persuasion." He described three main forms of rhetoric: Ethos, Logos, and Pathos.
There are three main forms of rhetoric: Ethos: The persuasive appeal of one's character. Logos: The appeal to reason or logic. Pathos: The appeal to emotion. In order to be a more effective writer, you must understand these three terms. For the purposes of this PowerPoint, I will primarily use advertisements to demonstrate these appeals.
Ethos: the source's credibility, the speaker's/author's authority We tend to believe people whom we respect. One of the central problems of argumentation is to project an impression to the reader that you are someone worth listening to, in other words making yourself as author into an authority on the subject of the paper, as well as someone who is likable and worthy of respect.
Ethos is appeal based on the character of the speaker. An ethos-driven document relies on the authority or reputation of the author or speaker.
Logos: the logic used to support a claim (induction and deduction); can also be the facts and statistics used to help support the argument. Persuading by the use of reasoning. An effective and persuasive reason that supports your ideas.
Idea: Students should be allowed to use cell phones during school hours. List three supporting facts and/or statistics that will support the aforementioned idea.
Logos is appeal based on logic or reason. Corporate documents and advertisements are often logos- driven.
Logos-based ads often have a lot of text, like these advertisements for Crest and a pharmaceutical company.
Pathos: persuading by appealing to the reader's emotions. Emotional appeals, are used to persuade. Language choice affects the audience's emotional response, and emotional appeal can effectively be used to enhance an argument. How? Anecdotal writing or narratives within persuasive writing
Pathos is appeal based on emotion. Many advertisements are pathos-driven, including those for fashion (desire to fit in), for toothpaste (fear of stained teeth), and for beauty products (feel better about yourself), to name a few. Oftentimes pathos- driven ads simply invoke an “awwww” feeling.
How does this advertisement appeal to emotion? Why?
Pathos can play on our fears Pathos can play on our desire to look a certain way or to fit in.
Since pathos-driven advertisements appeal so strongly to our emotions, it is imperative that we use our reasoning (and research) skills. For example, the above organization was given an “F” rating by at least two large “charity watch” organizations. Note: this does NOT mean it is not a valid charity; it means as a consumer I would look into these concerns further before contributing to the charity.
Few of our children breath fresh air in their schools, which are being sprayed, inside and out, with millions of pounds of deadly, nervous system destroying pesticides. What are the details provided in this claim?
Some advertisements appeal to our pathos (emotions) and logos (reasoning)
Watch some TV Take notes on at least ONE popular commercial and describe what the commercial does. Write a brief explanation where you indicate the type of rhetorical device used, whether it is ethos, pathos, logos, or some combination, and give evidence (How do you know that the ad is using that device?)
Find 2-3 advertisements in a magazine or a newspaper that demonstrate ethos, pathos, and/or logos. Cut out the advertisements and paste them to a piece of paper. Write a brief explanation where you indicate the type of rhetorical device used, whether it is ethos, pathos, logos, or some combination, and give evidence (How do you know that the ad is using that device?)