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Published byGeraldine Nichols Modified over 7 years ago
The Categories of Persuasion By Marsha Barrow “Knowledge, it has been said, is power. And rhetoric is what gives words power.”
In rhetoric, you are dealing with likelihood rather than certainty. There is room for argument, and it is precisely in that space that the art of persuasion flourishes.
Persuasion – The attempt to convince someone to believe the same way as you do. Rhetoric – The art or language of persuasion.
The Greek philosopher, Aristotle, divided the means of persuasion into three categories: ETHOS PATHOS and LOGOS.
ETHOS, the Greek word for “character,” means credibility. We tend to believe people we respect and trust. When trying to persuade someone, we try to project an impression that we are someone who is worth listening to, who is likable, and is worthy of respect.
ETHOS is also evident in rhetoric when the power of persuasion is used to influence someone through a professional person, a famous person, a celebrity, or organization. For example, a well- known doctor, professor, or scientist; the president of the United States, a professional athlete, a movie star, a recording artist, The Boys Scouts of America, or the military.
Pathos, the Greek word for “suffering,” is often associated with emotional appeal. It means to persuade by appealing to the reader's emotions. Language choice affects the audience's emotional response, but a better equivalent might be to appeal to the audience's sympathies and imagination. Pathos causes an audience to identify with the writer's point of view--to feel what the writer feels.
With PATHOS, the author appeals to the reader’s emotions.
Logos, Greek for “word,” appeals to the reader’s logic or reasoning. Giving reasons is the heart of persuasion. The impact of logos is the effectiveness of its supporting evidence.
With LOGOS, students use facts, data, statistics, or numbers to support their argument.
Ethos: ethical appeal; the source's credibility, the speaker's/author's authority Logos: the logical appeal; uses facts, data, numbers, statistics to help support the argument; the logic used to support a claim; Pathos: the emotional appeal; vivid language, emotional language and numerous sensory details.
The opportune occasion for speech; the opportune time; act now; urgency!
In rhetoric, kairos is "a passing instant when an opening appears which must be driven through with force if success is to be achieved.
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