Emotional Appeals in Persuasive Writing
How writers and advertisers use your feelings to get you to agree with them.
Aristole’s Means of Persuasion
The goal of argumentative writing is to persuade your audience that your ideas are valid, or more valid than someone else's. The Greek philosopher Aristotle divided the means of persuasion, appeals, into three categories--Ethos, Pathos, Logos. Ethos (Credibility), or ethical appeal, means convincing by the character of the author. We tend to believe people whom we respect. One of the central problems of argumentation is to project an impression to the reader that you are someone worth listening to, in other words making yourself as author into an authority on the subject of the paper, as well as someone who is likable and worthy of respect. Pathos (Emotional) means persuading by appealing to the reader's emotions. We can look at texts ranging from classic essays to contemporary advertisements to see how pathos, emotional appeals, are used to persuade. Language choice affects the audience's emotional response, and emotional appeal can effectively be used to enhance an argument. Logos (Logical) means persuading by the use of reasoning. This will be the most important technique we will study, and Aristotle's favorite. We'll look at deductive and inductive reasoning, and discuss what makes an effective, persuasive reason to back up your claims. Giving reasons is the heart of argumentation, and cannot be emphasized enough. We'll study the types of support you can use to substantiate your thesis, and look at some of the common logical fallacies, in order to avoid them in your writing.
Emotional Appeals in Persuasive Writing
Writers and advertisers use many techniques to convince you to agree with them or buy their product. An emotional appeal tries to make the reader connect the writer’s message with an important feeling.
Types of Emotional Appeals
Loaded Language Basic Needs Bandwagon Testimonial Snob Appeal
Loaded Language The loaded language technique uses words
that cause a strong feeling. Once the reader is feeling strongly, he or she may be more likely to agree with the writer.
Loaded Language When a mother reads the word “groovy” in this ad for a popular kids’ lunch box food, what emotion do you think she will feel? What could this feeling make her want to do?
Basic Needs The basic needs technique tries to connect your need for
Love Safety and security Convenience Health Money to agreement with the writer’s opinion.
Basic Needs This example came from an ad for a low fat frozen dinner. What basic need does it appeal to?
Bandwagon The bandwagon technique appeals to the reader’s need to belong and to do what everyone is doing. Should you by a product just because it is the most popular?
Testimonial The testimonial technique uses a famous person or someone who looks like a normal, average person. The testimonial tries to connect the writer’s opinion to the reader’s feeling about this person.
Testimonial This man seems like a normal, likeable guy.
The text is written as if he is talking directly to the reader. The picture also uses another emotional appeal. Can you identify it?
Snob Appeal Snob appeal is a technique that uses the reader’s desire to be better than others and connects this feeling to the writer’s opinion. “Better” can mean more beautiful, more athletic, smarter, or richer than the average person.
Snob Appeal This model is Cybil Shepard, who is popular with older adults. Advertisers use famous models to sell clothing because many people want to look as beautiful as the model.
Conclusion Emotional appeal techniques can be extremely effective in persuading the reader to act on a feeling. As readers of persuasive writing, we must learn to recognize emotional appeals. If we focus on the facts instead of the feelings, we will make a better decision about the writer’s opinion.
Activity: What is the logic?
Watch the video. Determine if the video uses ethos, pathos, or logos to persuade the audience. Write your answers on the sheet that your teacher has given you. Stank Away! BP Clean Up! Allstate Mayhem is Coming!
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