Presentation on theme: "Geographical Information Systems MR1510 Lecture 3."— Presentation transcript:
Geographical Information Systems MR1510 Lecture 3
Geography Matters… to All of Us
We Share the Same Geography and Are Related
Geography Is the Science of GIS It Provides the Framework...
Measuring and Integrating the Parts... Social Factors Biodiversity Engineering Land Use EnvironmentalConsiderations …Means Seeing the Whole Coastal and Marine!
What is GIS? GIS is a systematic integration of Computer Hardware, Software and Spatial Data, for capturing, storing, displaying, updating manipulating and analysing, in order to solve complex management problems. Previously we had paper maps, which were very colourful, but couldn't modify. Then came the computer revolution, where the maps were digitised and stored in digital format as entities (points, lines and areas). Then came the GIS, which made these entities intelligent. It attached a value(attribute) to these entities, with what it actually means in geographical terms.
GIS: historical background This technology has developed from: –Digital cartography and CAD –Data Base Management Systems ATTRIB IDX,Y ID CAD System Data Base Management System
Components of a GIS GeographyGeography A computer (hardware and software)A computer (hardware and software) DataData Expertise (coastal and marine)Expertise (coastal and marine) A thinking operator thats YOU!A thinking operator thats YOU! Geographic Information System
How GIS works Data is stored as a collection of thematic layersData is stored as a collection of thematic layers
Modelling the real world x y
Point Line Polygon/Area Characteristics of spatial data
What makes data spatial? Placename Grid co-ordinate Postcode Distance & bearing Description Latitude / Longitude
Characteristics of spatial data TopologyTopology Connected to Connected to Within Within Adjacent to Adjacent to North of... North of...
Types of data Maps Images Spatialnon-spatial Postcodes/ZIP codes Oblique photographs Videography Financial statements Films Schematic diagrams AB24 3UF £12, £23, £45,
Spatial data storage Vector modelVector model Raster modelRaster model
Vector data Land use parcels
InputInput StorageStorage ManipulationManipulation QueryQuery AnalyzeAnalyze VisualizationVisualization Functions of a GIS Geographic data is the fuel of GIS.
GIS Is an Instrument for Implementing Geographic Thinking