Presentation on theme: "GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS PRESENTATION 1"— Presentation transcript:
1 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS PRESENTATION 1 toNatural History Division, Institute of JamaicaBy Suzanne Davis & Alfreco JohnsonNatural History Division, Institute of Jamaica January 2003
2 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS (GIS) GIS:- a computer-based tool used and managed by people to efficiently capture, store, integrate, analyze and display spatial (geographically referenced) data & associated attribute data.Key components:Hardware (computer)Software (storage, editing, analysis and display programmes)* Data (spatial and descriptive or attribute)People (applicators of tool to problems)Procedures (based on plans/protocols/models unique to each organization)
3 GIS CharacteristicsA powerful mapping system that links locations to attribute data so you can:Present different types of information (ecological, social, educational, etc.) as mapsAnalyze locations and associated data/informationEasily and efficiently update of spatial information (maps)Integrate maps with information from a variety of sources
4 Why Use GIS?Offers advanced data management capabilities for handling complex or various datasets linked to locationsAllows improved research and planning activities by integrating data and information from different sources to produce a ‘wholistic’ picture.Facilitates colourful media presentations for easier interpretation of technical data & information by technical (e.g. scientists) and non-technical personnel (e.g. managers, policy-makers)
5 Spatial Data SPATIAL DATA:- a precise geographic location a distance or length referencedby geographic coordinates oran area that has measuredboundaries referenced by geographiccoordinates.Examples: maps & charts, surveyor records, buildingplans and satellite imagespointslinespolygons
6 Benefits of Spatial Data Databases for taxonomic collections & field data have added value if the records include spatial data.Data on location or space is critical to understanding ecological patterns or natural phenomenaIf the same collecting methodology is used in the same geographic location periodically, it is assumed that detected trends or changes in wildlife occurrence and distribution reflects trends or changes that may have taken place in that environment or in ecological interactions.Spatial databases allow more efficient forecasting for businesses, land developers, education and research personnel, etc.
7 Applicability of a GISGIS can be used in just about any situation where there is a spatial component and the composite features of the same space can be separated to form layers.What is a Map Layer? A layer is an abstraction of a single feature from a spatial area represented on a map. This is where one feature is pulled from a geographic area and made to stand alone.
8 Some Sectors in which GIS is widely used Transportation (Highway system) Whether monitoring bus systems and road conditions, finding the best way to deliver goods and services, tracking fleet vehicles, or maintaining transportation networksEducationA GIS allows students and researchers to ask and answer geographic questions by designing and analyzing maps using user-selected criteria.Engineering GIS provides the pipeline operator with improved capability to manage pipeline integrity, improved efficiencies in pipeline operations, and improved response to business development opportunities.Communication Location-based services combine GIS applications with easy-to-use mobile devices to provide information wherever and whenever it is needed.
9 GIS Sectors (cont.)Business Used in banking and insurance for more precise targeting of customers in marketing exercisesHealth and Human ServicesUnderstanding issues ranging from epidemiology to access to healthcare providers requires understanding the geographic context of health issues.Natural Resources Monitoring & Environmental ManagementGeography provides the framework to acquire, develop, and interpret the complex spatial and tabular datasets used for mining and the earth sciences. Mapping, spatial concepts, and time/space operations technology is absolutely essential to effective mining.
10 Example of GIS Use in Transportation Land Coverage of the United States
13 United States Cities locations superimposed with highways
14 Who Uses GIS in Jamaica? Individuals Government agencies (e.g. Forestry Department, National Environment & Planning Agency, Urban Development Corporation)Non-government organizations (e.g. Jamaica Conservation Development Trust, the Nature Conservancy – Jamaica)Teaching & research institutions (e.g. University of Technology, University of the West Indies)Business enterprises & consultancies (e.g. Spatial Innovision
15 Processing of Maps There are Two primary stages in the Digitizing and FormattingAdding Attributes and Values
16 Digitizing and Formatting Digitizing is the process of assigning digital coordinates by physically or automatically tracing hard copy documents. Primarily used for converting paper maps or aerial photos into digital form.
17 Picture of a digitizing board Map or image is secured to board and important reference points are matchedImportant features of map are then traced with digitizing mouse by clicking the mouse
18 Digital references are then made to all polygons in digitized image
19 Further formatting of the digitized image is done
21 Adding Attributes and Values of Features Attributes are descriptive characteristics of the features of a spatial entity.Attributes take the form of:Measurements – height, distance, intensity, etcClassifications – Acidic, alkaline, residential, etc.Quality – good, bad, satisfactory, A, B, C, etc
22 GIS Software ArcInfo Arc View Most comprehensive GIS available Defines spatial relationships between connecting or adjacent coverage featuresProvides GIS data creation (e.g. digitizing), updating, mapping, querying and analysisArc ViewMost popular desktop GIS and mapping softwareProvides data visualization, querying, analysis, and integration capabilities along with the ability to create and edit geographic data.
23 Africa Countries and lakes represented as polygons & rivers represented as lines