Presentation on theme: "1 An introduction to GIS for NOF projects Paul Miller Interoperability Focus UKOLN U KOLN is funded by Resource:"— Presentation transcript:
1 An introduction to GIS for NOF projects Paul Miller Interoperability Focus UKOLN P.Miller@ukoln.ac.ukhttp://www.ukoln.ac.uk/ U KOLN is funded by Resource: the Council for Museums, Archives and Libraries, the Joint Information Systems Committee (J ISC ) of the Further and Higher Education Funding Councils, as well as by project funding from J ISC and the EU. U KOLN also receives support from the Universities of Bath and Hull where staff are based.
2 What is GIS? A system for capturing, storing, checking, integrating, manipulating, analysing and displaying data which are spatially referenced to the Earth. (AGI, 1995)
4 What is GIS? Geographic Information System Geographic Over 80% of public sector data is said to have a geospatial component –An address, a postcode, a grid reference, even a county… Information Much of the data stored in databases can be linked using this geospatial component –Salary, buying preferences, artistic style, historical period, photographer…
5 What is GIS? Geographic Information System System Not simply the output (often a map) –Includes the processes, procedures, rules, etc. to create, combine, validate, and analyse data….
6 Do I need GIS? It depends… Do you have much data that would make sense linked to a map? –And do any licensing restrictions apply? Do you have access to the requisite skills and equipment? –The software is getting much easier, but its still a complex area Does it fit with your project? –Some projects really dont need this….
7 Ways to use GIS (roughly) Behind the scenes, simply helping you Behind the scenes, producing map images Behind the scenes, producing map images to drive an image map On the website, selecting data in response to user queries On the website, producing maps in response to user queries On the website, producing maps in response to user queries, and allowing the user to interact with the result.
8 Simply helping you… Plotting locations of buildings photographed for management reasons? Ensuring equitable distribution of funds by geography? Tracking users against known areas of Social Exclusion? Highlighting significant areas for more work? The user may never know Boring Useful. Ways to use GIS
9 Producing map images… Combining different sources of data in order to produce maps, graphs, etc, which illustrate points on your web site. These maps are static; just as if they were printed in a book. Ways to use GIS
11 Driving an image map… Combining different sources of data in order to produce maps for your web site. These maps are used as the basis of image maps –Images on the web site that users click on in order to select an area of interest –Much simpler than building a GIS on the Web, if this is the only functionality you want to provide. Ways to use GIS
13 Selecting data in response to user queries… You may want to allow searches of your database using addresses, locations, etc., but return information without showing the user a map. Ways to use GIS
15 Producing maps in response to user queries Perhaps the best–known of the web– based GIS applications, and now widely available. Services often offered by companies who are prepared to integrate their products with your web site, so that you dont need all of the expertise in– house. Ways to use GIS
20 Producing maps with which the user can interact A real Web GIS, likely to require the greatest infrastructure, the most powerful hardware and software, and the most expensive licensing costs for copyrighted data. Ways to use GIS
25 Issues to consider: Software Do you already have access? If youre a Local Authority, try your Planning Department –But have a good idea what you want to do If youre in Higher Education, try the Geography Department or your Computing Service –Some GIS software is covered by a CHEST deal Do you have access to the skills? Maybe visit GIS 2001, or a similar event? 18–20 September, Earls Court. See www.iebusiness-forums.com/gis/
26 Look for standards compliance NOF Technical Guidelines –www.peoplesnetwork.gov.uk/nof/ technicalstandards.html Open GIS Consortium –www.opengis.org/techno/ specs.htm. Issues to consider: Software
27 Do you have the data already? And if so, does your license allow you to use it as you want to in this project? If you dont have the data, how are you going to get it? Buy from Ordnance Survey, Bartholomew, Cities Revealed, etc? –But remember to negotiate a license that lets you do what you want to Digitise from paper originals? –But remember to clear the rights for material that is still in copyright. Issues to consider: Data
28 Are you combining data sources? Scale –Add the roads from a 1:250,000 UK road atlas to buildings from a 1:1,250 urban map, and the results will be very poor Data granularity –If youve gathered data on postal area (YO, G, etc.), theres no point plotting it on a map of postal districts (YO4, G67, etc.) Spurious accuracy –x lies within 100m of y –But x and y are drawn from data sources that are only precise to within 50m –So x and y might be adjacent, or they might be 200m apart. Issues to consider: Data
29 Remember… Just because you have access to a GIS or a map of your area… not all software or data can do everything you want to it do and even if it can, your license might not let you.
33 Some pointers… ADS GIS Guide to Good Practice ads.ahds.ac.uk/project/goodguides/gis/ Association for Geographic Information (AGI) www.agi.org.uk/ National Geospatial Data Framework (NGDF) www.ngdf.org.uk/ Open GIS Consortium (OGC) www.opengis.org/ Ordnance Survey (OS) www.ordsvy.gov.uk/ Web–Mapper www.web-mapper.com/