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Kingston Centre for GIS1 An introduction to G I S.

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Presentation on theme: "Kingston Centre for GIS1 An introduction to G I S."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kingston Centre for GIS1 An introduction to G I S

2 Kingston Centre for GIS2 AIM: To introduce the basic principles of GIS After this lecture you should be able to: Provide a definition, and brief description of the historical development, of GIS Describe the main components required to run a successful GIS Give examples of some GIS applications

3 Kingston Centre for GIS3 What is GIS? A technology –hardware & software tools An information handling strategy The objective: to improve overall decision making

4 Kingston Centre for GIS4 GIS: a formal definition “A system for capturing, storing, checking, integrating, manipulating, analysing and displaying data which are spatially referenced to the Earth. This is normally considered to involve a spatially referenced computer database and appropriate applications software” Chorley Report, 1987

5 Kingston Centre for GIS5 Why is GIS unique? GIS handles SPATIAL information –Information referenced by its location in space GIS makes connections between activities based on spatial proximity

6 Kingston Centre for GIS6 GIS concepts are not new! London cholera epidemic 1854 Cholera death Water pump Soho +

7 Kingston Centre for GIS7 Spatial information handling 1854 Cholera death Water pump Soho +

8 Kingston Centre for GIS8 GIS: historical background This technology has developed from: –Digital cartography and CAD –Data Base Management Systems 1 2 3 ATTRIB IDX,Y 123123 ID 123123 CAD System Data Base Management System

9 Kingston Centre for GIS9 GIS components Specific applications / decision making objectives ? G I S Spatial data Computer / software tools Computer hardware / software tools

10 Kingston Centre for GIS10 Types of data Maps Images Spatialnon-spatial Postcodes/ZIP codes Oblique photographs Videography Financial statements Films Schematic diagrams KT1 2EE RH8 9AA SW1P 3AD £12,000 23.45 56789 £23,456 12.45 23456 £45,987 29.57 87634

11 Kingston Centre for GIS11 What makes data spatial? Placename Grid co-ordinate Postcode Distance & bearing Description Latitude / Longitude

12 Kingston Centre for GIS12 Software & hardware tools High End toolkits Desktop Mapping Web enabled Component

13 Kingston Centre for GIS13 Manipulation and analysis What would happen if... A chemical leaked into a river? Where does... The Green Belt exist in relation to the City? Has... Population changed over the last ten years? Is there a spatial pattern related to... Car ownership in our area?

14 Kingston Centre for GIS14 GIS comprises of: Data input Storage Management Analysis Output

15 Kingston Centre for GIS15 The benefits of GIS include: Better information management Higher quality analysis Ability to carry out “what if?” scenarios Improve project efficiency

16 Kingston Centre for GIS16 GIS Applications Facilities management Marketing and retailing Environmental Transport/vehicle routing Health Insurance and many more...

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