Kingston Centre for GIS1 An introduction to G I S.
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Kingston Centre for GIS1 An introduction to G I S
Kingston Centre for GIS2 AIM: To introduce the basic principles of GIS After this lecture you should be able to: Provide a definition, and brief description of the historical development, of GIS Describe the main components required to run a successful GIS Give examples of some GIS applications
Kingston Centre for GIS3 What is GIS? A technology –hardware & software tools An information handling strategy The objective: to improve overall decision making
Kingston Centre for GIS4 GIS: a formal definition “A system for capturing, storing, checking, integrating, manipulating, analysing and displaying data which are spatially referenced to the Earth. This is normally considered to involve a spatially referenced computer database and appropriate applications software” Chorley Report, 1987
Kingston Centre for GIS5 Why is GIS unique? GIS handles SPATIAL information –Information referenced by its location in space GIS makes connections between activities based on spatial proximity
Kingston Centre for GIS6 GIS concepts are not new! London cholera epidemic 1854 Cholera death Water pump Soho +
Kingston Centre for GIS7 Spatial information handling 1854 Cholera death Water pump Soho +
Kingston Centre for GIS8 GIS: historical background This technology has developed from: –Digital cartography and CAD –Data Base Management Systems 1 2 3 ATTRIB IDX,Y 123123 ID 123123 CAD System Data Base Management System
Kingston Centre for GIS9 GIS components Specific applications / decision making objectives ? G I S Spatial data Computer / software tools Computer hardware / software tools
Kingston Centre for GIS10 Types of data Maps Images Spatialnon-spatial Postcodes/ZIP codes Oblique photographs Videography Financial statements Films Schematic diagrams KT1 2EE RH8 9AA SW1P 3AD £12,000 23.45 56789 £23,456 12.45 23456 £45,987 29.57 87634
Kingston Centre for GIS11 What makes data spatial? Placename Grid co-ordinate Postcode Distance & bearing Description Latitude / Longitude
Kingston Centre for GIS12 Software & hardware tools High End toolkits Desktop Mapping Web enabled Component
Kingston Centre for GIS13 Manipulation and analysis What would happen if... A chemical leaked into a river? Where does... The Green Belt exist in relation to the City? Has... Population changed over the last ten years? Is there a spatial pattern related to... Car ownership in our area?
Kingston Centre for GIS14 GIS comprises of: Data input Storage Management Analysis Output
Kingston Centre for GIS15 The benefits of GIS include: Better information management Higher quality analysis Ability to carry out “what if?” scenarios Improve project efficiency
Kingston Centre for GIS16 GIS Applications Facilities management Marketing and retailing Environmental Transport/vehicle routing Health Insurance and many more...