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GG3019/GG4027/GG5019 An Introduction to Geographical Information Technology and GIS Geographical Information Systems and Geospatial Data Analysis David.

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Presentation on theme: "GG3019/GG4027/GG5019 An Introduction to Geographical Information Technology and GIS Geographical Information Systems and Geospatial Data Analysis David."— Presentation transcript:

1 GG3019/GG4027/GG5019 An Introduction to Geographical Information Technology and GIS Geographical Information Systems and Geospatial Data Analysis David R. Green G12 – 2324

2 GG3019/GG4027/GG5019 LECTURE 1 Introduction to Course Brief Outline of Module Software: ArcView / Idrisi / Erdas Imagine Video (GIS in a Box) Origins of GIS GIS Definitions OBJECTIVE: to define GIS

3 ESRI Virtual Campus USGS Tutorials Glossary of GIS Terms Textbook and Web

4 Video: What is a GIS? Video

5 Origins Computer Aided Cartography (CAC) Remote Sensing (RS) Computer Aided Design/ Drafting (CAD) Database Management Systems (DBMS) GIS Integrated Technologies

6 G (eography) - a particular form of Information System applied to geographical data (location, co-ordinates, maps etc..) I (nformation) S (ystem) is a set of processes, executed on raw data, to produce information which will be useful in decision-making A series of steps from observation and collection of data through analysis to information (Data Handling) The DATA into INFORMATION PATHWAY ( Data = Facts; Information = Facts with Meaning) Definitions

7 GIS as a Toolbox Usage of GIS for Mapping Static vs. Interactive Maps GIS as Interactive Cartography The Analysis Distinction - Query to Analysis GIS as an Approach to Science GIS as a Discipline Definitions

8 Geographic Information System uses geographically referenced data (spatial) as well as non-spatial (aspatial) data and includes operations which support spatial analysis (maps and attributes) The connection between the elements of the system is geography, e.g. location, proximity, spatial distribution, patterns In this context GIS can be seen as a system of hardware, software and procedures designed to support the capture, management, manipulation, analysis, modeling and display of spatially-referenced data for solving complex decision-making, planning and management problems Although many other computer programs can use spatial data (e.g. CAD and statistics packages), GISs include the additional ability to perform spatial operations Definitions

9 "Any manual or computer based set of procedures used to store and manipulate geographically referenced data." (Aronoff, 1989). "A special case of information system where the database consists of observations on spatially distributed features, activities or events." (Dueker, 1979). " a powerful set of tools for collecting, storing, retrieving at will, transforming and displaying spatial data from the real world for a particular set of purposes." (Burrough, 1986). Definitions

10 " a decision support system involving the integration of spatially referenced data in a problem solving environment." (Cowen, 1988). " An information technology which stores, analyses and displays both spatial and non-spatial data... GIS is actually a technology and is not necessarily limited to the confines of a single, well defined software system." (Parker, 1988). " an institutional entity, reflecting an organisational structure that integrates technology with a database, expertise and continuing financial support over time." (Carter, 1989). Definitions

11 More than just mapping software, GIS (geographic information systems) are database management tools which allow you to analyze data visually. A GIS can be a valuable addition to your research and analysis -- they make visible relationships, patterns, and trends that might not be apparent in written or tabular form. Definitions

12 " a powerful set of tools for collecting, storing, retrieving at will, transforming and displaying spatial data from the real world for a particular set of purposes." (Burrough, 1986). Definitions

13 Many different definitions (see textbooks and websites) Many different Perspectives Simple to Complex Software Desktop to Mobile Software Stand-alone to Networked Software Functionality Applications Many mapping software packages have become GIS! Derive Substantial Commercial benefit!

14 Keywords Geography/Geospatial Data Information Technology (IT) (Computers) Database Retrieval Interaction Maps Decision Support Data Capture Data Storage Data Handling/Manipulation Data Analysis Data Output (Display and Visualisation)

15 Task What is a GIS? Take three examples…….. AA Routeplanner at SACOAST (Coastal Maps) Google Earth (accessible in classrooms B28/G9) For next week: QUESTION: are these GIS? Tabulate the criteria that you think defines these as a GIS/not a GIS Hand-in for on Monday


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