Presentation on theme: "What do children’s drawings tell us about child development?"— Presentation transcript:
1What do children’s drawings tell us about child development?
2Why study children’s drawings? - Learn about acquisition of drawing skillssuch as: motor execution, planning strategies, spatio-geometric and part-whole relations, and artistic talent.-To use it as a source of evidence with respect to more general processes such as representational change.
3How study children’s drawings? Two approaches (Vinter, 1999) Product oriented approach- The “what” of drawing or the trace left on the paper.Process oriented approach – The “how” of drawing or the organisation of movement used for drawing.
4Drawing develops through distinct stages (Luquet, 1913;1927; Piaget & Inhelder 1956;1971) 1.) Scribbling (ages 2-4)- fortuitous realism2.) Preschematic stage (ages 4-7)Failed realism –elements are unrelated/unconnectedIntellectual realism –Children draw what they “know”3.) Schematic stage (ages 8-9)Visual realism –children draw what they “see”
5What influences children’s drawing? (Luquet) Child’s internal model/representation (mental image)- Contains the critical features of that topic (sides of cube).- Attempt to include all critical features may result in unrealistic drawing.(sides of cube drawn folded outor cup with handle)
6Visual & Intellectual realism (Freeman & Janikoun, 1972) Intellectual realism- draw what you know rather than what you seeVisual realism-draw what you see in a very realistic way
7Visual & Intellectual realism Cox (1978,1981) Occlusion task- Children younger than 8 yrs. Failed to draw the appropriate relationship.incorrectcorrect
8Luquet / Piaget &Inhelder (1956,1969) Luquet’s theory of drawings as representations of internal models has been taken up as a cognitive theory (Piaget incorporated ideas into his own account of child dev.) , even though……Luquet does acknowledge other influencing factors which include non-cognitive factors. Thus, it is doubtful that Luquet was a strong advocate of stages.
9Criticisms of stage account (see intro in Charman & Baron-Cohen,1993) Stages too rigid (Freeman, 1980)6yr olds more successful in drawing occluded objects when meaningful context added (Cox,1981)When balls given faces children aged 7 were able to give a partial occlusion response. (Littleton & Cox, 1989)
10Are there developmental stages Are there developmental stages? (see intro in Charman & Baron-Cohen,1993)The idea of rigid stages has been left behind, however children still show evidence of sequential cummulative progression in drawing development.Despite an abundance of literature challenging stages account of drawing, children below age 5 rarely produce visually real drawings(Shift from intellectual to realistic drawing still occurs in young children)
12Do individuals with autism progress through drawing stages more rapidly? (Eames & Cox,1994; Charman & Baron-Cohen, 1993)Those in the general autistic population?Found: No evidence that those with autism progress more rapidly to visual realism.Conclude: Those with autism produce intellectually realistic drawings, like those with typical development. This means they have the capacity to represent non-mental representations (using their internal model).
13But how can we explain autistic savants? Perhaps those with savant abilities form representational schemas as those with typical development, but features emphasized are primarily structural descriptions rather than semantic knowledge.
14Pring & Hermelin, 1993Aimed to investigate the mental processes contributing to graphic aptitude of savant artists.Does reproduction memory and picture sorting rely on structural or semantic features in savant and non-savant artists?
17ConclusionsThere is no evidence to suggest that autistic savants have a particularly well developed memory for the visual-structural features of objects, or have overall more efficient visual memory.
18Snyder & Thomas (1997)Argue autistic artists make no assumptions about what is seen in their environment.They do not have mental representations about what is salient in their environment and see all details as equally important.Perhaps perception is less Top-down
19Why study children’s drawings? 1.) Explore acquisition of drawing skillssuch as: motor execution, planning strategies, spatio-geometric and part-whole relations, and artistic talent).2.) To use it as a source of evidence with respect to more general processes such as representational change.
20Representational change Knowledge is internalised and stored in the form of symbolic representations in a person’s mind.These internal representations may be modified to integrate new information.
21Traditional theories of child development? NativismPiagetianRole of genesVery importantNoRole of environmentRole of childDevelopment is…..Domain-specificDomain-general
22Karmiloff-Smith (1990;1992)First attempt to combine the Nativist and Piagetian views of cognitive development.Infants are born with specified pre-dispositions or biases that focus attention to relevant environmental inputs.Initial representations become redescribed/reformatted with experience.
23Constraints theory of child development An internal representation is first specified as a sequentially fixed list. (constraints exists at this level).Through representational redescription sequential constraints are relaxed.End result is an internal representation which is specified as a structured yet easily manipulable set of features.
24Karmiloff-Smith (1990) Children were asked to draw a man with 2 heads They found 5 year olds were significantly less successful than 8 years olds.
33Experiment 4Aimed to explore external task –related factors, such as attention.81 (3-5 year olds)Failed both22Successful on both41Mixed performance18
34Summary of supporting evidence A substantial number of 4-5 year olds failed even with the clarification of seeing the illustration first and a larger sample size.Study 2 ruled out dispositional factorsStudy 4 ruled out attentional factors
35Challenges to theoryMany 3-4 year olds could successfully adapt their usual drawing procedure to produce a man with 2 heads.External factors such as trying to maintain a coherent and symmetrical composition may be able to account for difficulties with drawing a two headed figure.