2Constructed Response Items A constructed response item is an assessment item that asks students to apply knowledge, skills, and/or critical thinking abilities to real-world, standards driven performance tasks.It requires a brief written response from students. They often have several parts. Students have to write, draw, and/or explain their answers.
3Constructed Response Items Sometimes called “open-response” items, constructed response items are so named because they ask students to use their own thinking and background knowledge to develop answers without the benefit of any suggestions or choices.CR items often have more than one way to correctly answer the question.As noted in this slide, constructed response items are often “open-ended” thus requiring a scoring guide or rubric that some knowledgeable person must use to score the students response to the prompt. Acceptable answers should be identified prior to scoring, but flexibility will be needed.
4Constructed Response Items CR items are good to use when you want students to:Show their workExplain a processCompete a chartPerform a geometric constructionConstruct a graphIdentify patternsWrite an essay
5Constructed Response Items Tie constructed response items to higher-level objectives.This type of item is good to use when you want to test a skill that can’t be easily measured with a selected-response item.1. Generally constructed response items are related to higher-level learning targets; those that are not easily assessed by a multiple choice items or selected response item. CR items often ask students to solve, explain, describe, analyze, draw, extend understanding, etc.
6Constructed Response Items Two primary types of constructed response items:Brief Constructed ResponseExtended Constructed Response
7Brief Constructed Response Items Require about 1-3 minutes of student response timeUsually represented by one of the following 5 formats:Fill in the blankShort AnswerLabel a diagramVisual representationShow your work
8Brief Constructed Response Items BenefitsCan be used to assess higher level thinkingRequires students to create correct answers rather than simply recognize themLess dependent on writing skillsTends to be more engaging due to the visual stimulusAllows for a varied view of student knowledge
9Brief Constructed Response Items DrawbacksItems must be hand-scoredStudents, not familiar with the item format, may be negatively impacted.Students are not able to extend their thinking on the content or concept being tested
10Brief Constructed Response Items Fill in the blankAsks students to complete a statement or respond to a question with a word, phrase, sentence or number. Requires a very brief response.
11Fill in the blank Guidelines Be sure range of responses are open ended; if not consider rewriting item into a selected response itemBe explicit in your wording so that response expectations are clearPlace your response lines carefully within each itemTry to limit the number of response lines in each item to 3
12Brief Constructed Response Items Short AnswerAsks students to generate a brief text in response to a question or statement. Answers are typically expected to be from a sentence or two to a paragraph in length.This format allows students to select, organize, express, and extend their ideas and understandings around the given concept and/or content.
13Short Answer Guidelines Be sure range of responses are open ended; if not consider rewriting item into a selected response itemBe explicit in your wording so that response expectations are clear while not eliciting identical responsesUse clear cueing verb (i.e., explain, describe, analyze, defend, etc.) to ensure student convey the correct thinkingStress quality over quantity; use numerical cues carefully
14Brief Constructed Response Items Label a diagramAsks students to add information to an existing visual stimulus. They may be coupled with a short answer item to allow students to extend their thinking or provide other relevant information
15Label a diagram Guidelines Ensure clear directions for completion Use visual stimuli that are clear and sufficiently detailed to ensure proper responses
16Brief Constructed Response Items Visual RepresentationAsks students to create graphics such as charts, graphs and diagrams. The intent is to allow students the opportunity to show what they know in relation to a specific topic or concept.
17Visual Representation GuidelinesBe explicit in your wording so that response expectations are clearProvide enough direction in terms of space, symbols to be used, etc. to ensure the intended response
18Brief Constructed Response Items Show your workAsks students to perform a specific task (or part of a larger task) and provide evidence of the process they utilized while completing that task. A response to these items may result in a visual representation or a label a diagram.
19Show your work Guidelines Be sure that words, images, symbols, etc. will provide evidence of understandingProvide clear directions that will ensure the intended response without producing identical answers
20Extended Response Items Extended response items require students to provide evidence of understanding regarding a situation that demands more than a selected response or brief constructed response.They usually involve minutes of student response time
21Extended Response Items May require students to reflect and respond in a variety of contexts, such as:Write an essay from a promptTake a position on a specific topic and support their stanceSolve a problemRespond to findings of an investigation and/ or experimentRespond to written text
22Extended Response Items Answers to extended response items are usually written, but can take the form of a performance and/or product in appropriate situations.
23Extended Response Items BenefitsDrawbacksOften considered more authentic in natureStudents are able to provide evidence of understanding and extend and expand on their understandingItems must be hand-scoredStudents, not familiar with the item format, may be negatively impactedDifficult for students with poor writing skillsTime consuming to administer and time consuming to score
24Extended Response Items GuidelinesCarefully word directions and promptsAllow sufficient time for completionHave resources necessary for item completion on hand and ready for useShare with students elements/characteristics of a successful response, where appropriate
25Constructed Response Items When designing common assessments, use a variety of brief constructed response items…(these could include short answers, fill-in-the-blank, show-your-work and visual representations) as well as extended constructed response items.Be sure they are aligned to appropriate (usually higher-level) learning targets
26Constructed Response Items The item should be clear and specific about what students should do.A CR item may have several questions.Allow for more than one way for students to respond.
27Constructed Response Items Include necessary visual representations such as charts, graphs, pictures, short readings, and cartoons.Determine points possible for each item.
28Constructed Response Items Usually CR items are worth 2 or more points depending on the difficulty of the item and the task being performed.Design a scoring protocol, based on the number of points possible, for each constructed-response item.Scoring protocols are typically specific to each individual item
29Scoring RubricsBrief constructed response items usually require a simple scoring guide; while extended response items may require a more detailed scoring rubric.
30Scoring Guide Task Specific but Generic Point Scale Purposeful Math KnowledgeStrategic KnowledgeExplanation
32Scoring Rubric A good scoring rubric should include the following: Score PointsScore DescriptorsExemplars—An Example of a correct answer with all the score descriptors included in the answer.
33ExampleExemplarsIt’s not a reasonable estimate because I estimated and added , and it only comes to 130 books sold.The estimate is not reasonable. I rounded the numbers to = 130. This is much less than 200.2The focus of this task is to determine whether a sum computed based on estimated whole numbers is reasonable. The response provides a correct assessment with an adequate explanation.1The response demonstrates partial evidence of the determination whether a sum computed based on estimated whole numbers is reasonable. The response may provide an incomplete assessment or slightly flawed explanation.The response demonstrates no evidence of the determination whether a sum computed based on estimated whole numbers is reasonable. The response provides an incorrect assessment with an inadequate explanation characterized by major flaws and errors.Score Point DescriptorsScore Points
34Constructed Response Items Student work should be scored against the rubric.Scores should be determined as objectively as possible.
35References Wahlstrom Book http://mfaa.msde.state.md.us Tests that Teach by Karen Tankersley