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Skill Presentation Chapter 7. Learner Preparation Need undivided attention before skill instruction begins – Distraction free background – Learners can.

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Presentation on theme: "Skill Presentation Chapter 7. Learner Preparation Need undivided attention before skill instruction begins – Distraction free background – Learners can."— Presentation transcript:

1 Skill Presentation Chapter 7

2 Learner Preparation Need undivided attention before skill instruction begins – Distraction free background – Learners can clearly see and hear – Learners’ back to the sun – Place equipment away from gathering area Present skill dynamically and emphasize its importance

3 Practical Application What things might distract a learner in your work context? What could you do to avoid these distractions?

4 Practical Application List characteristics of effective instruction. How do these characteristics support learning?

5 Role of Verbal Instructions 1. Introduce learners to new skill – Communicate general idea of the goal of the skill or strategy – Make the learners aware of major technical features or critical elements Use cue words 2. Skill refinement – Develop learner's ability to perform skill under criterion conditions Transfer to different contexts

6 Verbal Instructions Keep explanations short and simple KISS Use developmentally appropriate terminology Direct learners attention to critical elements of the skill during initial instructions Provide learners with a frame of reference for correctness Incorporate learning style and previous experiences

7 Exploratory Activity 7.1 Activity 2 – You will need a blank sheet of paper and a pencil – Sit with your back to your partner – The ‘facilitator’ should describe the drawing so the artist may replicate the diagram. – The first artist may ask questions but no gestures may be used to augment the questions. The second artist may not ask questions of the facilitator. – Once finished, compare the original and drawn diagram. – Answer questions on page 139

8 Locus of Attention Internal focus – Focusing one’s attention to concentrate on a specific body movement (develop proprioception) Cognitve/early associative stage (closed skills) External focus – Focusing one’s attention to the effects of his or her actions on the environment Associative stage – External focus may be better for skill refinement

9 Verbal Cues Word or concise phrase that focuses the learner’s attention or prompts a movement or movement sequence – Concise – Accurate – Limited in number – Used repeatedly throughout the learning process

10 Check for Understanding Quick check for understanding avoids having to reassemble the learners to repeat or clarify instructions – Provide an opportunity for learners to ask questions following the skill presentation – Ask learners to restate the key elements of the skill to assess comprehension of instructions

11 Theories of Observational Learning Social cognitive theory – Develops cognitive representation of the skill Dynamic interpretation of modeling – Obtain information regarding the pattern of coordination of the limbs relative to one another – Information is directly perceived

12 What Should Be Demonstrated? Focus on coordination of the skill Entire vs. partial – Perform initial skill in its entirety, then depends on skill’s complexity & interrelationship between parts Real time vs. slow motion – Perform initial skill in real time – Use slow motion to focus attention but sparingly

13 Who Should Demonstrate? Expert vs. learning model Model-observer similarity Alternative mediums

14 Expert vs Learning Demo Expert model shows correct skill Focus learner’s attention on correctness of performance Demo will show fluidity and coordination Learner is passive Learner will imitate movement “Learner” will show correct and incorrect components Observer will focus on both correct and incorrect components Instructor will be giving verbal feedback and cues during demo Learner is active and will explore own movement

15 Model-Observer Similarity Observers perform better when they view models who are perceived as similar May be attributed to increased self-efficacy beliefs – When observers view a similar model successfully perform the skill, their perception that they too will be able to successfully reproduce the skill increases

16 Alternative Mediums Videotape Illustrations Still photos Consequent sounds

17 How Should the Demonstration be Organized? All learners must be able to clearly see and hear Explain how demonstration will proceed and what to watch for – Focus learners on key elements – Focus on the process of the movement – Avoid “product”/end result emphasis Demonstrate for both right and left limb dominance

18 When? To introduce a skill Interspersed throughout practice – Gives learners an opportunity to answer questions that arise from their performance attempts – Allows instructors to address problems that surface At conclusion of practice session – Helps to reinforce concepts and strengthen memory

19 How Often? Dependent on: – Complexity of skill – The extent to which the learner understands the information presented

20 Discovery Learning Learner attempts to solve a movement problem through the exploration of a variety of possible task solutions Practitioner’s role is as a facilitator Active learning through problem solving Guided discovery – More structured – Practitioner designs a sequence of questions, each of which elicits a single correct response to be discovered by the learner


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