Presentation on theme: "Cognitive development What do babies perceive? Do babies have memory? For what? Can babies problem solve? When? Do babies think in the same way as adults?"— Presentation transcript:
Cognitive development What do babies perceive? Do babies have memory? For what? Can babies problem solve? When? Do babies think in the same way as adults?
Methodology: Design Longitudinal design –Same individual; multiple test times –Investigate how individual CHANGES over time Cross-sectional design –Different individuals at different ages –Investigate age DIFFERENCES
Development research question How can you find out when infants can distinguish different colors? What sort of methods can you use?
Infant Cognition Methods Habituation technique - Decline in response to repeated stimulus - Measure novelty to infer perception and memory
Infant Cognition Methods Preference technique –Look longer technique –Infer capability to differentiate Habituation technique –Decline in response to repeated stimulus –Measure novelty to infer perception and memory Reward technique –Rewarded if performs action in specific situations –Study memory and learning
Piagets theory How do children think? –Construct knowledge through activity Schemata –Assimilation Fit experience into what we already know –Accommodation Change schema for new experience Four stages of development –Sensorimotor (birth – 2yrs) –Preoperational (2 – 7 yrs) –Concrete operational (7 – 11 yrs) –Formal operational (11+ yrs)
Piagets Cognitive Development Theory Sensorimotor (birth-2yrs) –Sensory and motor reflexes and abilities –Develop object permanence –http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NjBh9ld_yIohttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NjBh9ld_yIo
Piagets Cognitive Development Theory Sensorimotor (birth-2yrs) –Sensory and motor reflexes and abilities –Develop object permanence Preoperational (2-7yr) –Practice and learn mental representations –Fail conservation tasks and show egocentrism –http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YtLEWVu815o&feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YtLEWVu815o&feature=related
Egocentrism Ask child what the object looks like from other persons point of view
Piagets Cognitive Development Theory Sensorimotor (birth-2yrs) –Sensory and motor reflexes and abilities –Develop object permanence Preoperational (2-7yr) –Practice and learn mental representations –Fail conservation tasks and show egocentrism Concrete operational (7-11yr) –Gain logical reasoning about concrete objects Formal operational (11+) –Scientific reasoning –Capacity for abstract thinking and reasoning
Concrete operational and formal operational stage tasks
Challenges to Piaget Children capable of more if use different methodology –Object permanence –Symbolic thought Discontinuous vs. continuous debate –e.g. Conservation tasks Role of culture –One course v. many courses debate –Cognitive abilities develop from social interaction
Challenges to Piagetian theory New object permanence studies Method: Look longer paradigm
Thought paper How could you use each of the following methodologies to study color perception in infants? –Preference technique –Habituation technique –Reward technique
How test if infants can differentiate colors Preference technique –Red and green screens side by side –Switch which side red and green screen is on –IF one is preferred then assume they can tell difference between colors Habituation technique –Show red screen until bored of it –Show green screen and see if there is renewed interest. –IF interested, assume they can tell difference between colors Reward technique –Learn how to change sucking pattern to see red or green slide –Or If infant looks at green, rather than red screen, provide nutrient pacifier. Then change sides of colors. If infant looks at green again, infer they can differentiate colors