Presentation on theme: "You have ten minutes to teach the person next to you a game that you can do using paper eg tic, tac, toe, design a story, draw a house without taking your."— Presentation transcript:
You have ten minutes to teach the person next to you a game that you can do using paper eg tic, tac, toe, design a story, draw a house without taking your pen off the paper, the dot and square game One of you will be teacher one of you will be learner – try to take note of what the process was.
What methods did you use to teach and learn the game?
Recap of Social Learning Theory Observational Learning Role Models A R R M
Types of Reinforcement Positive Reinforcement - Involves receiving something good for an action, which ‘reinforces’ or encourages the behaviour to be repeated e.g. one might get material gain from criminal activity, such as robbery, and so is likely to repeat it for the same rewards Negative Reinforcement - Involves the removal of a burden or something bad when a certain behaviour is reproduced, which again reinforces that behaviour to be repeated e.g. a criminal who steals might have their financial hardship removed, and so will sustain this by stealing again Vicarious Reinforcement – The observer anticipates receiving a reward for behaving in a given way because someone else has been so rewarded e.g. watching someone receiving status for stealing a car
Bandura (1977) identified three factors which he thought determined whether or not a model is to be imitated: vicarious consequences – if the model is punished, behaviour is less likely to be copied, and if the model is rewarded for showing a certain behaviour and the observer views the crime as victimless (e.g. shoplifting), it is more likely to be imitated, due to both success and reward of the crime and the lack of victims. external motivation – once the behaviour has been copied then the rules of operant conditioning apply (i.e. behaviours which are rewarded are more likely to be repeated, and punishment will likely deter behaviours). self-reinforcement – a behaviour is more likely to be repeated if it satisfies some internal needs, for example excitement when committing the crime or a feeling of power
Bobo Doll – Bandura 1961 - Overview The researchers found that those who were observing role models of the same gender were much more likely to imitate their behaviour (in this case, abusing an inflatable Bobo doll with various items of toy weaponry). They also noticed that children were more likely to imitate role models who were aggressive than those who were not. Boys were found to be more easily influenced by aggressive behaviour of role models than girls, although girls were still affected.
Overview and Bandura speaks on violence http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WebQ8f03NPk
Real life examples of SLT and crime http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cYApo2d8o_A
Role of the media? 70/80% Rideout et al, 1999 – 38 hours per week, 2-7 year olds 25 hours a week Bartlett et al 2007 – Mortal Combat; Deadly Alliance – graphic blood from 0 to highest level – more blood = more aggressive thoughts
Charlton et al 2000 – Study in detail Lab experiments – increases violence Field experiments – increases violence Natural experiments??
Explanations of criminal behaviour Tad is a 15 year old lad living on an estate. His father is in the military and so is not around. He has been spending time with a local gang of boys. The leader of this gang is Rob he is 18 and receives a lot of praise, girls and following from his behaviour. He has acquired his status in the gang through stealing cars for joyriding. He has started to take Tad along with him. One day Tad decided he wanted to impress a girl and he stole a car. Use ARRM and the other key terms to explain how Tad ended up turning to criminal behaviour
One explanation for anti-social behaviour comes from social learning theory. This theory explains anti-social behaviour as a result of observation and imitation of a role model. It has been found that criminal/anti-social role models who are imitated possess certain characteristics. Explain how the characteristics of a role model could influence criminal/anti-social behaviour in someone. (3 marks) Social Learning Theory uses concepts such as modelling to explain anti-social behaviour. Describe the meaning of the term ‘modelling’ as it is used to explain anti-social behaviour. (3 marks)